Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Tales Of King Arthur Since the romanticizing of the Arthurian legends by Geoffery of Monmouth, the historian, during the twelfth century, the legendary king of England has been the source of inspiration for kings, poets, artists and dreamers alike. The most famous work is probably Sir Thomas Malorys Le Morte dArthur, completed around 1470, and published in many abridged and complete versions. Malorys work contains in one the legend that had been continually added to over the years by many different writers who introduced such elements as Sir Galahad, and the ill-fated love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere. Geoffery of Monmouth had been the first to put the legends surrounding Arthur into literary form inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When Guinevere first appears in early Welsh stories, she is the daughter of a giant, but later she becomes the daughter of King Leodegrance of the West Country. In her original Welsh form of Gwenhwyfar, she was an folk figure before being connected to Arthur, and may originally have been a lesser goddess. Geoffery located Camelot at the very real Roman town of Caerleon in South Wales; Malory placed it at Winchester, which was the headquarters of the kings of Wessex and remained a royal seat after the Norman invasion. Other stories place it near Arthurs supposed birthplace at Tintagel. Cadbury Castle in Somerset has been named as another possible location of Camelot, which has been revealed during excavations to have been occupied during the time of Arthur and to have been the headquarters of a leader, if not a king. The real Arthur may have been buried at Glastonbury Abbey, which lays around twelve miles north-west of the castle. It is said to have been a secret burial, so the news of his death would not raise Saxon morale; the mystery may have given rise to the rumors that he still lived on. In 1190, the monks of Glastonbury Abbey reported that they had dug up a coffin made from a hollow log, and a lead cross inscribed with theShow MoreRelated King Arthur Essay1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKing Arthur Character Analysis Although King Arthur is one of the most well-known figures in the world, his true identity remains a mystery. Attempts to identify the historical Arthur have been unsuccessful, since he is largely a product of fiction. Most historians, though, agree that the real Arthur was probably a battle leader of the Britons against the Anglo-Saxons in the sixthth century. In literature, King Arthurs character is unique and ever changing, taking on a different face inRead More King Arthur Essay1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKing Arthur Character Analysis The character of King Arthur is unique in literature. Most characters are known through their actions and words as described by the author of a story. Arthur, however, is a conglomerate of characters described by many different authors over a fifteen hundred year span. There is no single depiction of him, and one cannot trace his origin to a single author for the definitive description. As such, the character of Arthur is different depending on the era, cultureRead More King Arthur Essay2674 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesKing Arthur The Arthurian legends are well known in todays society. However, very few people know of the real Arthur -- who he was and what his accomplishments were. This paper will establish a difference between legend and truth, show evidence to support and explain who the real Arthur was, and shed some light on the sometimes confusing Arthurian legends. To establish any sort of idea that there was, in fact, a real Arthur, it is imperative to look over the legendary ArthurRead MoreThe Legend Of King Arthur1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKing Arthur King Arthur was one of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s and WaleÃ¢â¬â¢s most influential literary figures from the early 800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Through the ages more caught on to these Arthurian Legends, and they began to embrace them as part of their culture. Some believe that he is only a legend, yet others believe that there is even an Arthur living among us today. While growing up, Arthur was oblivious to his heritage. From becoming a King at the age of 16, Arthur showed courage and strength in the darkest of timesRead MoreKing Arthur Essay1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe stories and legends surrounding the character of King Arthur are among the best known of all stories about kings and knights. The stories and legends surrounding the character of King Arthur are among the best known of all stories about kings and knights. He is the greatest of British literary heroes, although little is known about the real person. Folklore and literature provide examples of a recurrent myth about a leader or hero who has not really died, but is asleep somewhere orRead MoreKing Arthur and Lancelot1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbattle. Nine months later, Merlin takes Uthers son Arthur. Uther pursues but is mortally wounded by Gorloiss knights. Uther thrusts Excalibur into a stone, and Merlin proclaims that he who draws the sword from the stone, he shall be king. Years later Sir Ector and his sons, Kay and Arthur, attend a jousting tournament. Sir Leondegrance wins the chance to try pulling Excalibur from the stone, but fails. Kays sword is later stolen, and Arthur pulls Excalibur from the stone while trying to stopRead MoreCharacteristics Of King Arthur880 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMany know of the epic hero Arthur, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what it is that makes him so. Though there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t one solid story, like Beowulf, there are multiple stories that agree on the same things, such as ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s allegiance to the Knights of the Round table, his companion Merlin, his relationships with his fellow knights, family, and close friends, and the legendary sword Excalibur. When all aforementioned qualities are explained and put together, it can truthfully define Arthur as an epic hero. The legendRead MoreWho Is King Arthur?526 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pages2010). This quote is the perfect way to describe King Arthur. The stories of King Arthur have been passed down for centuries. He is a huge figure it literature and his stories have impacted many people. What if that is it? What if it is all just stories. History has provided us with much evidence that he is real. We also have a lot of counter evidence as well. So, who exactly was King Arthur and is he a hero born, or just made up? 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He goes after Garlon the invisible evil night and finds the Castel Carbonek. He stricks King Pelles with the Dolorous Stroke then fights his brother unknowingly and they kill each other. The First Quest of the Round Table- King Arthur
Monday, December 16, 2019
The Foolproof Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle Schcool Strategy Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle Schcool Explained You can be certain your order will be dealt with by the most suiting writer who will offer the required writing level. Tattoo is a type of art made by the qualified artists. Showing awareness about recent changes in this issue you're writing on is very critical to win a very good grade. If you still have questions about how to choose a fantastic topic for your assignment, you ought to talk to your teacher or visit the library and receive an argumentative essay writing manual. There are various topics that one may use in writing process essays. With math essay you might feel perplexed as it's not so simple to write. Every argumentative essay ought to depend on a topic that may be debated. There are just a few things that define whether an essay you're working on is going to be a good one. Tell students you'll be working on argumentative essays. When the writer is appointed, they begin working on your essay in line with the requirements you have specified in your purchase. Our talented writers can deal with just about any form of writing assignment, in addition to Math and Physics issues and a lot more. Because you are going to be tasked to supply extensive info and explanation on the subject, you must make make certain that the topic you've chosen have relevant and credible references. Firstly, take into consideration the topics that you wish to study deeply. You may always structure your issue so that it's unique to the argument that you're proposing in your essay. The matter here is that it takes so many parts of paper to write just a single textbook. Up in Arms About Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle Schcool? Words if stated the incorrect way can deviate from your idea, even if you didn't mean it that manner. There's something for everybody in here. Just click the image below and you will be taken to a page where you could read more and see a comprehensive preview of what's included. The first thing you're likely to have to do is to choose a topic that has more than one clear side. Life, Death, and Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle Schcool Think about a few tee ns you know. Someone assertion might just be grouped into two teams. Considering you will elect for the belongings in your announcement usually means your choices are an indication of the verdict. The teachers don't always assign the specific topic. Some schools in america are requiring that students volunteer for a number of hours each semester to assist on a community issue. Our resume writing service can spare you lots of grief and boost your odds of getting an excellent job straight from college. Whenever your university student chooses to change their path, he'll likely should rewrite his distinct fact. Response to defined issues Graduate and business college program program, sometimes you're able to ask definite concerns. In an argumentative essay you're supposed to present arguments about either side and please so take note of important events and court rulings about the topics you're speaking about. If you don't find out how to begin your essay or where to search for supporting data, we'll be pleased to help you. To be certain you are on the most suitable way you require help in writing your paperwork. Quite simply, it may be an extensive uncomfortableness whilst in the neck area whilst not really incorporating s omething of value to all your current perform which isn't really shocking that the bulk of college individuals are looking for a lot process essay topics for canadian history of supplemental guidance to deal with it if they experience a particularly great composed job. There are a number of thumb rules for argumentative essay subjects to prevent clashes, yet earning a point at the exact same time. A methodical strategy is necessary to compose a process essay. In the procedure for selecting a topic, you also need to test your argument. A very good persuasive argument will use the latest data and data from verified sources. The Pain of Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle Schcool You may always reach out to your writer to present additional particulars or request information concerning the order's progress. Might it be advisable to produce an order for most big assignment, it may be of help to use the so-calledprogressive shipment aspect. Quickly shipping and delivery Your document will be achieved by the authentic time frame you're taking a look at. Pick the structure key and tell us what you would love to be able to finish your research, and we're going to allow you to try and do it included in the deadline.
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about theCognitive Processes. Answer: Introduction Learning a new language depends on various factors of the person and his character that help him to learn a new language. Bilingual people always have an edge over the monolingual person when it comes to learn a new language. Many factors determine the success of a person in learning a new language. Some of them are the internal factors such as the learners mind set; skills, memory and intelligence determine the learners success in grasping a new language. Language is preferably one of the complex skills that human can learn. Some external factors like; the learning environment, guidance, proper feedback and the skills learning ability of the learner has major affects on the success of the leaner in becoming expert in a new language. As the earlier study has suggested that, the bilingual persons are more capable in learning, a third language easily compared to the monolingual persons trying to learn a second language. Phonetic learning is a difficult task for the non-native learners as they find it complex than to learn the grammar or even the vocabulary. However, studies have shown that the bilingual persons have a little benefit in terms learning the phonetics of a language being from non-native background. In addition to this notion, the present study will try investigating the fact over the bilingual persons form various language backgrounds to understand the affects bilingual knowledge has in terms of phonetic learning. Literature Review In the earlier studies, it was preferred that the bilingual persons are more likely to adapt to a new third language far more conveniently than the monolinguals trying to learn a new second language. In the journal, The relation of bilingualism to intelligence, Psychological Monographs: general and applied, 76(27), by (Peal Lambert, 1962) an experiment was conducted among the bilingual and monolingual children to test their verbal and non-verbal abilities. The experiments did provide the fact that the children belonging to the bilingual group scored a higher score as compared to the monolingual children. It is thus evident that the bilinguals have a superior learning ability compared to the monolinguals in learning a new language. Other works have supported these facts at that time providing far more justification to the fact that the bilinguals have advantage over the monolinguals in learning a new language (Clyne, Hunt Isaakidis, 2004). Many other authors have provided support th rough their works in this aspect leading to the acceptance of the fact that the bilingual ability of a person provides him the advantage in terms of learning the new language is the other factors are controlled. In addition to this economic and social factors also influence the learning process of an individual. As discussed by Sanz, (2000) in his journal Bilingual education enhances third language acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia. Applied psycholinguistics, 21(01), 23-44. He promoted the thought that the socio economic and the demographic variables along with education if controlled it is seen that the bilingualism has advantage over the monolinguals in language learning. On the other hand, the recent studies in the field of the language learning have questioned that belief of the bilingual superiority. In the works of Duabeitia et al., (2014) in the journal The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited. Experimental Psychology the various other factors responsible for the learning behaviour of the learner such as his intelligence, memory and other internal as well as external factors influence greatly the success of the learner. The superiority may hold true for the learner in terms of learning the new vocabularies and other aspects, but is very different when it comes to the phonetic learning of the new language (Huang et al. 2013). It is particularly difficult for the non-native learners to master the phonetic aspect of the language and have success in complete learning of the language. In addition to this the works of Gallardo del Puerto, (2007) it is observed that the difference between the bilinguals and the monolinguals are very marg inal in the vocabulary learning test. After reviewing the literature, it can be said that the bilingual has benefit in terms of the improved working memory and ability to learn the vocabulary more efficiently compared to the monolinguals (May, 2013). In addition to this if the learner has knowledge of different phonetics and other linguistic features of languages, he can learn a new language faster than a person knowing one language. This is helpful for the learner to have a better idea of the new language if the phonetic characters are closely related to the language known to him (Durgunoglu Verhoeven, 2013). Methodology In this study, new experiment is to be conducted to provide justification to the fact of bilinguals having superiority in language learning than the monolinguals. As the experiment had only three language groups, it would be better to have few more people from various other language backgrounds to support the fact or prove against it. Make necessary adjustments to the sample size to include more participants to take the test. It will be more effective to have a group of 10 people in the each control and test group form various age groups to support the experiment. Including people from contrasting language backgrounds such as Chinese-Spanish, or Hindi-Portuguese may provide for results that diverse to support the study and provide justification. In addition to this, the various other aspects of cognitive learning are to be considered to have better idea of the necessary factors that influence the bilingual advantage of the learners. Is the age or the language background or having an idea of various other language phonetics is necessary for the success of the learners in learning a new language (May, 2013). Furthermore, the bilingual and the multilingual is to be compared to present a better understanding of the affects of the knowledge one possess at the time of learning a new language (Abello-Contesse et al. 2013). The stages, to which a bilingual belongs is a major factor that affects the performance of the learner. Stages of the bilingual learner can be determined as: early, late and simultaneous. In the early stage, the learner is comparatively new to the second language and does not have full command over the language (Huang et al. 2013). However, in the late stage the learner is well versed in the new language and is confident with the second language. The simultaneous learner has knowledge of both the languages he learned and has developed confidence over period (Antoniou et al. 2015). All these stage will have different affect on the performance of the learner trying to learn a new language. Thus, the groups have to be divided accordingly so that each group consists of the learners from different stages and test their performance. Independent and Dependent Variables and the Hypothesises The experiment is to be conducted between two groups where one acts as a control group and the other as a test group. The control group consist of the learners who are well versed in the language the test group is asked to learn. The two independent variables will be the gender of the participants and the knowledge background of the participants. The dependent variables in the experiment will be the age of the participants, language knowledge multilingual or bilingual, and background of the participant in terms of his language and ethnicity. Hypothesis H1: Multilinguals perform better in the word identification test H2: People from background to the tested language will have higher performance, eg: a person with knowledge of English will learn Spanish faster as compared to a person from Hindi background H 3: People in the late stage of the bilingual learning will show better performance in learning new words as compared to people who are in the early stage of the bilingual learning. Reference list Abello-Contesse, C., Chandler, P. M., Lpez-Jimnez, M. D., Chacn-Beltrn, R. (Eds.). (2013). Bilingual and multilingual education in the 21st century: Building on experience (Vol. 94). Multilingual Matters. Antoniou, M., Liang, E., Ettlinger, M., Wong, P. C. (2015). The bilingual advantage in phonetic learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(04), 683-695. Clyne, M., Hunt, C. R., Isaakidis, T. (2004). Learning a community language as a third language. International Journal of Multilingualism, 1(1), 33-52. Duabeitia, J. A., Hernndez, J. A., Antn, E., Macizo, P., Estvez, A., Fuentes, L. J., Carreiras, M. (2014). The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited. Experimental Psychology. Durgunoglu, A. Y., Verhoeven, L. (2013). Literacy development in a multilingual context: Cross-cultural perspectives. Routledge. Gallardo del Puerto, F. (2007). Is L3 phonological competence affected by the learner's level of bilingualism?. International Journal of Multilingualism, 4(1), 1-16. Huang, J. T., Li, J., Yu, D., Deng, L., Gong, Y. (2013). Cross-language knowledge transfer using multilingual deep neural network with shared hidden layers. In 2013 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (pp. 7304-7308). IEEE. May, S. (2013). The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL, and bilingual education. Routledge. Peal, E., Lambert, W. E. (1962). The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs: general and applied, 76(27), 1. Sanz, C. (2000). Bilingual education enhances third language acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia. Applied psycholinguistics, 21(01), 23-44.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
This week we were asked to analyse the following papers and a TED Talk presentation reflecting on how the accelerating pace of life and the distractions/noise in form of new means of communication are affecting our concentration and vanishing our Ã¢â¬Å"sanctuaryÃ¢â¬ where we can dedicate time for thoughtful reflections. * Ã¢â¬Å"No time to think: Reflections on information technology and contemplative scholarshipÃ¢â¬ , David M. Levy. (2007) * Ã¢â¬Å"Speed and the Unsettling of Knowledge in the Digital UniversityÃ¢â¬ , Ray Land, (2011). TED Talk Ã¢â¬Å"5 ways to listen betterÃ¢â¬ , Julian Treasure, (2011) Distractions serve anything but the knowledge It is true that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s digitisation and networking tools speed up the pace of our communicative exchanges. In the other hand, these increasingly attractive tools are stealing our time and helping to distract us. These distractions serve anything but the knowledge because seriously limit our ability to focus and attention (and hence learning). Nowadays many people believe that reading an entire book is less attractive than commenting on their friends photos on Facebook or, open multiple tabs in a browser and quickly discover everything that is happening. We will write a custom essay sample on No Time to Think or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is precisely the possibility to access an incredible amount of information through the current digital technologies and encounter endless possibilities of knowledge that challenges our inability to build mental representations. Given the monumental supply of information obtained through the mass media, especially the Internet, the individual focuses his attention by very few moments in the data exposed on computer screens as they navigate through new links. However, the quality of these connections often contrasts with the amount of information, which are hardly assimilated because there is no time or effort to establish relations between concepts and thus, creating new meanings. As a result, individuals have habitual concentration difficulties, especially when connect with other people and at the same time read information in various news sites. It is not by chance the use of terms such as connect, LikedÃ¢â¬ and off to describe relationships between people. It is as if the emailÃ¢â¬â¢s boxes or the tweets call us all the time so that messages must be read and answered immediately. The schools adopting the digital education model have already evidenced these concentration problems. The use of new technologies in the classroom econfigures everyday identities of their teachers and students and thus, their own teaching practice in the presence of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ limitless access to information through the Internet. I believe that the teachers, as the digital immigrants, and students, as the digital natives, are overwhelmed with the emancipatory potential of the Internet that in somehow they are experiencing a sense of loss as pointed out Ray Land: Ã¢â ¬Å"Paradoxically this may be experienced as a sense of loss as an earlier, more secure stance of familiar knowing has to be abandoned as new and unfamiliar knowledge is encounteredÃ¢â¬ . The temporary downside of this digital turn is a viral pact of mediocrity, through which teachers and students pretend to teach and learn, to the extent that the contents of academic papers are copied and pasted in the text with less and less reasoning being developed. New teachers adapted to this modus operandi disregard ethical issues and do not refute the information that the student presents through consultation online. Improving concentration in the digital environment Considering the above scenario, I believe that we need to re-think our strategy to overcome distraction and increase our capacity to learn in digital environments. As David M. Levy mentioned: Ã¢â¬Å"It might well be possible to begin to explore different modes of thinking Ã¢â¬â routine and creative modes, as well as obsessive mind chatter Ã¢â¬â not only to develop more nuanced and refined understandings of these processes but to understand how to encourage or discourage themÃ¢â¬ . The starting point could be the understanding of the mechanisms of human attention, decode how it works and even how to develop it. I personally think that concentration is not innate to the human being, but a skill that can be taught throughout life and can always be improved. Recently I read an intriguing book called Ã¢â¬Å"The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental ForceÃ¢â¬ (Jeffrey M. Schwartz and Sharon Begley, 2003) about the brain plasticity, which is the neuronsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to redistribute according to need and training. The conclusions regarding the brains ability to rewire itself and the idea that meditation may be driving neuroplastic changes are quite inspiring in the book. For J. Schwartz and S. Begley, the best way to ensure attention is to choose challenging activities. If the task is so hard that we almost cannot do it, will certainly require more focus. However, it is not always clear that we like or feel challenged by everything that we need to do. Sometimes the work is simply annoying, but still needs to be done. In these cases, the trick is to turn it into a kind of game, focusing on one phase at a time. Overcome steps, one by one, can leave the whole process more attractive. Something like the Ã¢â¬Å"gamificationÃ¢â¬ strategies, i. e. points and titles that some programs or applications give each task is accomplished. Being totally concentrated has to do with the state of Ã¢â¬Å"flowÃ¢â¬ discussed in the week 4 of the IDLE course. The psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi tried to understand the phenomenon by calculating the amount of information that our neural networks are capable of absorbing. He reached a number: only 110bps (bits per second). Listening to someone talking, for example, requires the processing of 40bps. That means, there are 70bps left in to use for distractions around. So we can scribble on paper or think in others to-dos while listening to the conversation. Using the 110bps in an activity would be the equivalent of what Csikszentmihalyi calls flowÃ¢â¬ that state of absolute concentration that makes us not even notice the time passing. Finally, the schools should debate more about the negative effects of distraction, the importance of the Ã¢â¬Å"white spaceÃ¢â¬ (or the sanctuary as we call at IDLE, the creation of physical spaces or times on the calendar for uninterrupted, unwired thinking and connection) and encourage students to apply basic practices to promote personal Ã¢â¬Å"white spaceÃ¢â¬ . These practices include: create a student routine, make lists with the priorities of the day, learn to organize time and to collect relevant study materials, learn to book time to solve everything else outside of the studies (a good way to fend off distractions is to take them out of our heads) and learn to absorb and to reflect on what has been collected.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Korea threats essays The article that I found deals with one of the countrys that President Bush has deemed the axis of evil. North Korea is one of a few counties that pose as a genuine threat, not only to the United States, but to the rest of the world as well. North Korea has finally admitted to an active nuke program after it has promised to discontinue their activity. Their nuclear capability worries the people of South Korea and the United States, which has been expressed numerous times by President Bush. North Korea is the country that poses as a serious threat to the United States. Iraq is the other country that Bush has labeled was part of the axis of evil; Iran is the only other country than North Korea that is seen as a large threat. The United Sates had arranged to help North Korea in 2002; in fact they were ready to take economic and political steps to improve the lives of North Korea civilization. North Korea then admitted they had a mass destruction program; this is after the US rightfully vowed not to harbor any country that supports terrorism. North Korea has continually let the international community that they have the ability to build nuclear warheads since 2002. At the end of 2002, they were found two have enough plutonium two build two nuclear bombs. They were trying to lure the United States to help North Korea in their never ending war with South Korea. North Korea wanted the US to look out for their people and give food to a malnourished country. At the same time they were trying to get our support by threatening our country. In conclusion, according to the just war theory the country that we would have rightfully gone to war with is North Korea. The just cause is seen as to secure the life of not only the people in North and South Korea but also all the countries that are in danger by North Korea. Iraq was never found to have mass weapons of destruction, and that is the main reason people are ex...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Newts and Salamanders in The Animal Encyclopedia Newts and salamanders (Caudata) are a group of amphibians that include about 10 subgroups and 470 species. Newts and salamanders have a long, slender body, a long tail, and usually two pairs of limbs. They inhabit cool, shady habitats and are most active during the night. Newts and salamanders are silent amphibians, they do not croak or make loud sounds like frogs and toads. Of all amphibians, newts and salamanders most closely resemble the earliest fossil amphibians, the earliest animals to have adapted to life on land. All salamanders and newts are carnivorous. They feed on small invertebrates such as insects, worms, snails, and slugs. Many species of newts and salamanders have poison glands in their skin which helps to protect them against predators. The skin of newts and salamanders is smooth and lacks scales or hair. It acts as a surface through which respiration can take place (oxygen is absorbed, carbon dioxide is released) and for this reason it must stay moist. This means newts and salamanders are restricted to damp or wet habitats to ensure their skin never dries out. During the larval stage, many species of newts and salamanders have feathery external gills that enable them to breath in water. These gills disappear when the animal matures into the adult form. Many adult newts and salamanders breath using lungs. Some species also absorb oxygen through the surfaces of their mouth and enhance the movement of air or water using buccal pumping, a rhythmic panting that is apparent by the vibration of the animals chin. Moving air and water through the mouth also enables the newt or salamander to sample the odors in the surrounding environment. Classification Animals Chordates Amphibians Newts and Salamanders Newts and salamanders are divided into about ten subgroups including mole salamanders, amphiumas, giant salamanders and hellbenders, Pacific giant salamanders, Asiatic salamanders, lungless salamanders, mudpuppies and waterdogs, torrent salamanders, newts and salamanders and sirens.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Graduates vs undergraduates - Essay Example Today, more than ever before nursing professionals are faced with challenges like catering to a global population, from diverse backgrounds and dealing with a whole host of problems that such situations throw up. Besides, with the advance of technology and an increased life span, the adult population with chronic illness makes up a significant percentage of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s patients. In addition to healing the sick, nursing professionals today have to shoulder the added burden of the changing needs of their profession in order to deliver good and cost effective care to their patients. Holistic care that is based on the physical, mental and emotional well being of the patient is the goal of every nursing professional, whether graduate or undergraduate. A health care system, needs a human interface in order to translate a health care plan and maximize its benefits to the patient. This is one of the important roles carried out by the nursing profession. Besides delivering good and cost ef fective health care, the nursing professional must also be capable of focusing on prevention rather than on cure. Understanding advances in technology and using this knowledge to educate communities on ways to lead healthier lives is an important aspect of the entire nursing profession.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
International and Comparative Employment Relations - Assignment Example The major purpose of the discussion is to compare different employment relation systems in different countries taking into the account similarities and differences along with implication for the management of employees within organisations. There is no doubt that different countries have different set of policies, rules, and protocols while managing varied kind of relationships. In the global business environment, American Model pertaining to the industrial relations is majorly followed However, this discussion will develop a European Model for industrial relations. The discussion will majorly focus on employment relation as function and system and applying it in the context of Foxconn with particular reference to the labour standards. The discussion will focus on the importance of maintaining labour standards along with analysing the benefits and challenges in a critical manner. Additionally, the discussion also revolves around examining the extent to which national patterns of employment relations exist and whether there is a shift towards a European Model of managing employee relations (Katz and Kochan, 2002). For this purpose, a critical analysis will be conducted on analysing employment relations systems in different countries along with discussing labour standards in general and in the context of Foxconn. The reason for conducting comparative analysis and discussing labour standards is based on deriving key conclusion by comparing and contrasting the existing results. In the preamble of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, it is clearly mentioned that, relations among countries in the context of trade and commerce should be conducted with a view of raising living standards along with ensuring full term employment (Harvey, et al, 2000). In the context of business organisation operating in developed and developing countries, it was found that liberalisation offered both challenges and opportunities to MNCs
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Public Opinion and Foreign Policy Essay This research is a review of an article by Douglas C. FoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: Elite Beliefs as a Mediating Variables. In addition, the latter part of this research evaluates the article and provides recommendations for further possible scholastic contributions. FoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s research is focused on the subject area of public opinion and its correlation and influence to foreign policy. The increasing interest of scholars about this subject matter has been immense and is widely acknowledged in recent scholarly contributions in recent times (Foyle 141). Thus, in this research, Foyle seeks to narrow down his focus on the correlation of the influence of public opinion to foreign policy and the elite beliefs of policy makers. This, in its context, establishes the beliefs of policy makers as the mediating variable that determines the possibilities of public opinion to influence foreign policies. Thesis Foyle argues that the beliefs of decision makers on the matter of the influence of public opinion on foreign policies have an actual effect to decision making (141, 144, 164). The research elaborates on this by citing findings which suggest that the influence of public opinion may vary on a number of factors. The factors according to Russet, includes both the decision time and the type of issue under consideration (144). In its argument, the research regards decision makers as the top level policy makers, frequently cited in the study as the leaders who are at the top of the hierarchy; are likely to participate, and has final authority for the decision (144). Public opinion, however, are determined through various representatives such as editorial opinion, polls, letters, etc (144). Foyle cited V. O KeyÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of public opinion as Ã¢â¬Å"those opinions held by private persons which governments find it prudent to heed. Ã¢â¬ . Consistent with KeyÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, Philip Powlick, relying on interviews with State Department and National Security Council (NSC) officials, discovered policy makers did vary in how they operationalized public opinion. He reported officials relied more often on the news media and elected representatives as indicators of public opinion. They used mass opinion (such as polls and letters) to a lesser extent and other elites and interest group activity least of all. (144) On the other hand, Foyle refers to beliefs as the perceptions of the policy makers on the desirability and importance of public opinion in influencing decisions in foreign policies (145). Furthermore, Holsti defines a belief system as Ã¢â¬Å"the set of lenses through which information concerning the physical and social environment is received. Ã¢â¬ Also, Vertzberger believes it Ã¢â¬Å"usually include principles and general ideas on the nature of the social and physical environment that constitutes policymakerÃ¢â¬â¢s field of actionÃ¢â¬ (144). Logic In this light, the belief system is analyzed with a theoretical framework containing two dimensions; normative beliefs and practical beliefs (141, 145). In this study, both concepts are utilized and measured as the logic which supports FoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. Normative beliefs measure the desirability of the public opinion to influence policies in the perspective of the policy maker. According to Foyle, this belief is composed of the judgment of an individual on whether input from public opinion is desirable or not in affecting foreign policy choices (145). On the other hand, practical beliefs measure the level of necessity of public support for a foreign policy to be successful (141). It presents the point of view of policy makers towards the idea of support from the public as to whether it is necessary or not for the success of a foreign policy. This logic further observes the correlation of elite beliefs and the influence of public opinion to foreign policy by using both the normative and practical beliefs as defining dimensions in which forms four possible distinct belief systems; delegate; executor; pragmatist, and guardian. (Foyle 145). These four systems are ideologies that illustrates an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s take on both the desirability of public opinion in affecting foreign policies and the level of necessity of the public support. One of the these systems are the delegates who are defined as policy makers who believe public opinion is desirable in influencing foreign policies, and public support is necessary for the success of these policies (145). Executors, however, are defined as those who believe that public opinion is desirable, thus input from others is acceptable but support is not necessary for the success of a policy (146). On the other hand, pragmatists are the ones who do not credit public opinion entirely but they consider public support as a necessity for a chosen policy (146). Lastly, guardians are the ones who block the connections of both the importance of public opinion and the requirement of a public support (147). These four systems are used as a tool to measure the classification of a policy maker in how it views the relationship of the input of public opinion and choices on foreign policies. With all these components utilized as the logic of the study, Foyle believes that categorizing policy makers into these belief systems, and understanding their individual beliefs on the relationship of public input and foreign policies, would further prove his arguments in this study. Also, this logic examines the feasibility of using normative and practical beliefs as a predictor of decision makerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior (147). Research Method The study uses qualitative content analysis to evaluate the interaction between the beliefs and behaviors of policy makers. (147) Foyle employs extensive archival materials available on the beliefs and behavior of President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. Foyle believes that a qualitative content analysis of EisenhowerÃ¢â¬â¢s and DullesÃ¢â¬â¢s normative and practical public opinion beliefs establishes them as pragmatists. Based on these beliefs, I outline predictions of decision-making behavior for these two individuals and compare these predictions with decisions made during the Chinese offshore islands crisis in September 1954. (147) There were several steps taken to administer the collection of data and its evaluation. According to Foyle, beliefs can hardly be measured directly, thus it must be inferred from the data which, in this kind, should be retrieved from available statements by the policy makers being examined (148). In this light, the study examined public and private communications, public writings and speeches. These are found in several public sources and archives to come up with a clear characterization of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs (148). In addition, three types of data were used to consider elite beliefs on public opinion; (1) private communication before and after taking office; (2) public statements before taking office; and (3) unprepared extemporaneous statements in office (149). Since there are reservations to the reliability of the qualitative content analysis, Foyle made use of two methods to deal with this issue (149). Foyle ensures that the beliefs analyses are completed initially before the detailed examination of behavior are reported. This succession, according to Foyle, makes sure that there are no influences by the examination of behavior on the beliefs analysis. In addition, Foyle employed an external party to measure the validity of the analysis and to ensure that there are no unintentional influence findings by that analyst (149). To determine the influence of beliefs to policy makerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, process training and congruency testing were utilized (Foyle 150). The procedure starts with the identification of the predicted theoretical relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Thereafter, the outcomes of the observations between the dependent and independent variables are determined and examined in relation to the theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s predictions (150). Therefore, if the outcome is in accordance with the theory, there exists a relationship between the variables.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Brown vs. Board: The Brown Sisters Speak I remember heading over to Foellinger Auditorium with Jessica saying to myself, I have no clue what this event was going to be all about. All Jessica had said to me was that the Brown sisters were going to be speaking. We entered the auditorium to find the first floor surprisingly alive with people talking among each other and seats quickly becoming full. We decided that it would be better to observe from above so we took the stairs up to the balcony and found seats right along the edge. From above, I could see the many people who came out for the event. The crowd contained many scholars and professors as well as a good group of students. I received a call from my friend, who spotted me from her seat in the first floor. She said that she was there to take notes for a class assignment as well. So, I think many students were also there because, just like, had an assignment to accomplish. It was at this point that I had finally put two and two together and realized that the Brown sisters were the daughters of the Reverend Oliver Leon Brown, who is the same person involved in the infamous Brown v. Board case. Jessica laughed at me for my slowness. I, however, began to get excited because this was truly rare and special occasion. I had wished that more people attended the event but looking at the crowd a second time, I was pleased to see the varying ages of the people in the crowd. There were people that looked older than the Brown sisters to young grade school students who came in as a class. Somehow, we were all connected because in one way or another, whether we are young or old, the decision that was passed down by the Supreme Court on Brown v. Board changed many lives. There were many things said by the Brown sisters that ranged from the historical context of the case to what it did for their lives. But one quote stood out in my head, and it was made by Dr.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Some men are born heroes while others earn the title after their death. Either way, a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s life and his achievements are cemented in the history of the world and become timeless. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) is known today as one of the most intelligent and skilled leaders to have ever lived. He is also known as a controversial figure, his reputation however is disputable as many criticize him for being brutal, selfish and delusional. A deeper study of his life and motives dictating it explains whether this accusation of his villainy is true or false. Military Successes His first actual military feat was in the Siege of Toulon, when he was the captain of the artillery, driving away the British naval and land forces. It was NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s ingenious plan to place the republican guns strategically atop a hill, in a manner that they could protect the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s harbor and they would push the British ships out of the city. Napoleon at the ripe age of 24 was known henceforth as Brigadier General and was consequently given the artillery arm of FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Army of Italy to lead. These events proved his ambitious and speedy progress on the military front and set a parable for time to come. (Asprey, 2000). In October 1975, he was given command of the forces at the Tuileries Palace where Napoleon had recently seen the massacre of the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Swiss Guard. He employed large cannons and used them to repel his enemy. The idea worked like magic, the streets were cleared in what is commonly known Ã¢â¬Ëa whiff of grapeshotÃ¢â¬â¢ as phrased by Thomas Carlyle in The French Revolution: A History. Napoleon had once again used his experience and devised an intelligent solution to hit the nail on the head. (Louis, 1998, p. 40) Bonaparte was to take command of the Army of Italy so he devised a plan that was entirely unpredictable. The manÃ¢â¬â¢s greatness and vision is reflected in how he could be so delicately tactful and roughly aggressive at the same time. First he overtook the Austrian forces at the Battle of Lodi. Then he went on towards the Papal States. The Directory advised him to conduct a march on Rome but as a man of reason would, Napoleon felt that would weaken the state and refused. In March 1797, Napoleon led the army into Austria which being defeated already decided to negotiate for peace in the Treaty of Leoben. The clauses of this Treaty were such that France got hold of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries. Seizing the opportunity to claim as much of the land as he could, he seemingly awarded Venice to Austria after which he marched into it, ending its 1,100 years of independence with a triumphant invasion. When viewed objectively and for its sheer innovation and creativity, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy leaves most people astounded and is certainly admirable. Not only does it take a thorough understanding of conventional military leadership, it also requires a fresh and bright mind to achieve this. Napoleon thus dedicatedly created for himself a reputation, cooking up military plots that his opponent could not often predict or prevent. (Asprey, 2000) Napoleon was one of a kind when it came to military tactics such as concealment, espionage, envelopment and surveillance. His talent was obvious with the numerous battles he fought and won in a very short span of time. That and the rising popularity inspired him to prepare for invading England which had vast trading interests in India at that time (Louis, 1998). He had a developing interest in the Middle East, and had the foresight to realize that joining hands with a figure like Tipu Sultan would be BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Achilles Heel. Napoleon told the Directory Ã¢â¬Ëas soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions. Ã¢â¬â¢ (Asprey, 2000, p. 26) Bonaparte sketched out the Constitution of the Year VIII on becoming First Consul and was soon known as the most powerful person in the country. In 1804, he formalized this status by crowning himself Emperor. Following this in 1805 he was crowned King of Italy too. Even at this exhilarating point in his life, Bonaparte with his quick thinking decided to promote his top generals to Ã¢â¬ËMarshals of the EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢, ensuring their loyalty to him for times to come. He did not take his success for granted. (Louis, 1998, p. 11). One of the most frequently discussed events of that time was the Battle at Austerlitz where, on the first anniversary of his coronation, Napoleon defeated Austria and Russia together. Following this, Austria signed the Peace of Pressburg after which Napoleon was named the Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (Moore, 1999). Austria had to also give up its land and Napoleon termed Austerlitz as one of his finest battles (Louis, 1998). Critics argue that at such a prime time in his life, Napoleon lost touch with reality and as Frank McLynn expressed Ã¢â¬Ëwhat used to be French foreign policyÃ¢â¬â¢ became a Ã¢â¬Ëpersonal Napoleonic oneÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬â¢ On the contrary, it seems few remember that the man had noble intentions. Vincent Cronin stated Napoleon was not overly ambitious for himself, that Ã¢â¬Å"he embodied the ambitions of thirty million FrenchmenÃ¢â¬ . (Moore, 1999, p. 2). One such example of NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s exceptional foresight and vast vision is that even after a failure to capture Egypt; he pursued his desire to secure a place in the Middle East. His insight that an alliance in that region would give the French the power to pressurize Russia from the South was brilliant. He worked hard to convince the Ottomans to join hands with him against Russia. He gave them incentives like they would regain lost territories and in 1806 Selim III called France a Ã¢â¬Ësincere and natural allyÃ¢â¬â¢ ready to form an alliance. Following this feat, the Persian Empire of Fateh Ali Shah also formed the Franco-Persian Alliance in 1807 (Asprey, 2000, p. 23). Personal skill Ã¢â¬â the exemplary hero NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest and most undeniable influence has been in warfare Ã¢â¬â his methods are now referred to as Ã¢â¬ËNapoleonic warfareÃ¢â¬â¢. The influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz describes him as a genius in the operational art of war. Wellington, when asked who was the greatest general of the day, answered: Ã¢â¬Å"In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon. Ã¢â¬ (Moore, 1999, p. 1). Napoleon was always head first into the battle scene. This not only motivated his soldiers and collegues, it also helped set high standards of dedication and passion on the field. In battles like Montenotte, Mondovi, Arcola and Rivoli, Napolean set great examples often getting wounded himself. He also kept soldiers going by promising those rewards and incentives. (Louis, 1998). Ã¢â¬ËNapoleon suffered various military setbacks however: at Leipzig in 1813, in Russia in 1812, and arguably at Aspern-Essling in 1809. He also had to abandon his forces in EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢. Despite the blows he suffered and felt responsible for subjecting his country to, Napoleon was always quick to get back on his feet. His resilient spirit as a fighter lives as an example for all those who search for the determination to achieve high goals. (Asprey, 2000, p. 38). NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s Strong Foundation Initially, Napoleon had a good opportunity to study and it was because of his dignified and prosperous family background and the strong ties among them. It laid the foundation, and gave him a chance to learn French at a religious school in Autun and later got him to enroll into a military academy at Brienne-le-Chateau. An examiner his exceptional aptitude in mathematics, history and geography, all of which helped him excel in the battlefield. The potentials map of the world, a desire to change history and the mathematical grid with which to arrange troops for an invasion Ã¢â¬â the seeds were sown for a new vision of the French Empire (Louis, 1998). Napoleon and other Heroic Achievements Not only was he a keen military man, his humane and artistic side too was alive and kicking. Bonaparte published two newspapers, which were apparently for troops but most of France was reading them under that cover. He also started Le Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux, a newspaper to be published in Paris, increasing his influence on the political front in the country. 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences, his Egyptian group discovered the Rosetta Stone and their work was published in the Description de lÃ¢â¬â¢Egypte (Asprey, 2000). Bonaparte was the one to initiate centralized administration, higher education, tax codes, road and sewer systems and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s central bank (Louis, 1998). He bargained for the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which inviting the Catholic population towards himself as he regulated public worship. In 1802, he instituted what is today the highest tribute in France in both military and civilian achievements, the Legion dÃ¢â¬â¢Honneur. These won him public support and high regard, and served as a bible for time to come. Multi talented and as much a man of reason as he was of force, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s also created the famous Napoleonic codeÃ¢â¬âwas an enormous stepping stone in the nature of the civil law and legal systems promoting lucid and accessible laws. In his own words Ã¢â¬Å"My true glory is not to have won 40 battlesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. Ã¢â¬ ¦ ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ what will live forever is my Civil Code. Ã¢â¬ (Louis, 1998, p. 51). Correctly so, the Civil Code has immense significance, used in over a quarter of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s jurisdictions including Europe, the Americas and Africa. It encouraged civilians to own property without fear and helped fight the plague of feudalism. Among his other achievements, Napoleon emancipated Jews from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and helped them win their rights to proper worship places, and work placed. In exile, in the first few months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, and reformed and renovated the agricultural systems according to modern ways. He was not only known for ruling loud and mighty but had a much more humane and thoughtful side to him, his vision extended much beyond the war field (Louis, 1998). The Decline The Russians were defeated in a series of battles and Napoleon resumed his advance. But the harsh climatic conditions made the advance a fierce challenge. The Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44,000 Russian and 35,000 French, dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time. In NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s own words was: Ã¢â¬Å"The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow. The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible. Ã¢â¬ The French suffered greatly in the course of a ruinous retreat, begun as over 400,000 frontline troops, but in the end fewer than 40,000. (Asprey, 2000, p. 28). Napoleon won a series of battles in the Six Days Campaign, but could not sustain control in Paris which was captured by the Coalition in 1814. The Allies eventually forced Napoleon to abdicate. He escaped but was intercepted soon. When confronted by a regiment, Napoleon approached them and shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish. Ã¢â¬ The soldiers, with hidden awe and admiration for him replied with, Ã¢â¬Å"Vive LÃ¢â¬â¢Empereur! Ã¢â¬ and marched with Napoleon to Paris; another example of the respect Napoleon received from those who knew his strengths and forgave his weaknesses. (Asprey, 2000, p. 64). Conclusion Many ideas demean the manÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation today. There is a term called the Napoleon Complex which indicates aggressive behavior of a person who lacks height. (Moore, 1999). He reinstated slavery in French colonies, encouraged looting and often sought to solve problems with brute force rather than by deliberation. His attack on Jaffa was brutal: innocent men, women and children lost their lives sometimes to save bullets, supplies and at other times because they were suffering from the bubonic plague and were a burden. In 1920 he re-established slavery in FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial possessions. (Asprey, 2000). Critics feel that the brutalities committed during his reign are unforgivable and were entirely unavoidable. However there are those like Vincent Cronin who felt that Napoleon was not Ã¢â¬Ëresponsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢. His was the rule that ended lawlessness in France after the revolution (Louis, 1998). A hero lives as an example to people to believe in good and strive to achieve it. A hero dies to live on in their minds as a proof of what the human spirit is capable of if the heart is set on it. Today International Napoleonic Congresses are held in which scholars and politicians meet to discuss matters of world wide significance. An icon of Ã¢â¬Ëmilitary genius and political powerÃ¢â¬â¢, Napoleon is used to name products, places and characters, all of which speak of his outstanding skills and innumerable successes (Moore, 1999). American journalist Chuck Palahniuk says Ã¢â¬ËWe all die. The goal isnÃ¢â¬â¢t to live forever; the goal is to create something that willÃ¢â¬â¢. Napoleon has emerged a hero, through what he created Ã¢â¬â an undying inspiration for great leadership, superb administration, unending determination, ruthless loyalty and masterful skills leading to eternal triumph (Louis, 1998, p. 66). He is remembered today in all historical publications as a courageous and able soldier, a man whose tact, craft and vision extended much beyond others. His name has come to symbolize a soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s epitome, a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s aspiration. His flaws may be many and will remain attached to his exalted but very human condition. As Alexander Pope puts it, Ã¢â¬ËTo err is human, to forgive is Divine. Ã¢â¬â¢ It is not everyday one finds a story so moving and as passionate as one of Napoleon Bonaparte. A man fuelled with a ferocious desire to be victorious only to see a victorious France. 1799. Napoleon was laid to rest in May 1821 after fighting with persistent ill health. His last words were Ã¢â¬ËFrance, army, head of the army, JosephineÃ¢â¬â¢ which he spoke in French (Louis, 1998, p115). There was no doubt that in his dying moments as his life flashed before him, he expressed what was dearest to him, and in it was his first and deepest love Ã¢â¬â France. Those who judge him for being self absorbed would think again. He was initially buried in St. Helena but later shifted to Seine as he had requested in his will. He was given a state funeral, respects to a man who was a hero of his time, albeit with inevitable human flaws. (Asprey, 2000). References Books B. Asprey, Robert. (2000). The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. First Edition. New York: Basic Books. Fauvelet de Bourrienne Louis, Antoine. (1998). Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte. Constables Miscellant Ã¢â¬â Original and Selected Publishing. Websites Richard Moore. (1999). Napolean Guide. May 26, 2010, from www. napoleonguide. com.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
In Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ µnito CÃ µrÃ µnoÃ¢â¬ by HÃ µrman MÃ µlvillÃ µ, thÃ µ author offÃ µrs a warning about thÃ µ dangÃ µrs of slavÃ µry, and thÃ µ futurÃ µ problÃ µms slavÃ µry could causÃ µ AmÃ µrica. By tÃ µlling thÃ µ story of a slavÃ µ rÃ µvolt on a Spanish ship, MÃ µlvillÃ µ shows how prÃ µjudicÃ µs affÃ µct a pÃ µrsonÃ¢â¬â¢s pÃ µrcÃ µption of thÃ µ world around him. Through writing most of thÃ µ story from thÃ µ viÃ µwpoint of thÃ µ main charactÃ µr, Captain Amasa DÃ µlano of Duxbury, MassachusÃ µtts, MÃ µlvillÃ µ dÃ µmonstratÃ µs how prÃ µjudicÃ µs can limit onÃ µÃ¢â¬â¢s pÃ µrspÃ µctivÃ µ and undÃ µrstanding.Although Captain DÃ µlano is an honÃ µst and kind pÃ µrson, hÃ µ cannot pÃ µrcÃ µivÃ µ thÃ µ world rÃ µalistically bÃ µcausÃ µ hÃ µ bÃ µliÃ µvÃ µs that blacks arÃ µ nothing morÃ µ than propÃ µrty. Captain DÃ µlanoÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to rÃ µcognizÃ µ his prÃ µjudicÃ µs or to lÃ µarn from his Ã µxpÃ µriÃ µncÃ µ in thÃ µ slavÃ µ rÃ µvolt makÃ µ him a symbol of what MÃ µlvillÃ µ fÃ µars will happÃ µn to AmÃ µrica. ThÃ µ story opÃ µns in thÃ µ Ã µarly morning of August 1799, off thÃ µ coast of ChilÃ µ, aboard an AmÃ µrican sÃ µaling ship callÃ µd thÃ µ BachÃ µlorÃ¢â¬â¢s DÃ µlight and undÃ µr thÃ µ command of Captain Amasa DÃ µlano.MÃ µlvillÃ µ dÃ µscribÃ µs DÃ µlano as a bÃ µnÃ µvolÃ µnt optimist who has a Ã¢â¬Å"singularly undistrustful good naturÃ µÃ¢â¬ and doÃ µs not likÃ µ to bÃ µliÃ µvÃ µ that man is capablÃ µ of Ã µvil. HowÃ µvÃ µr, DÃ µlano is also dÃ µscribÃ µd as a blunt thinkÃ µr and a simplÃ µ man incapablÃ µ of irony. WhilÃ µ DÃ µlano is dÃ µscribÃ µd as such a dÃ µfinitÃ µ thinking pÃ µrson, MÃ µlvillÃ µ dÃ µpicts thÃ µ morning as unclÃ µar and blurrÃ µd. ThÃ µ sÃ µa is fillÃ µd with a gray mist and thÃ µ color of thÃ µ sky, watÃ µr and birds all sÃ µÃ µm gray. Thus, thÃ µ rÃ µadÃ µr knows that thÃ µ indÃ µfinitÃ µnÃ µss of thÃ µ day and its hazinÃ µss will confusÃ µ DÃ µlano and prÃ µvÃ µnt him from sÃ µÃ µing clÃ µarly.Finally, thÃ µ prÃ µsÃ µncÃ µ of shadows adds furthÃ µr mystÃ µry to thÃ µ morning, which MÃ µlvillÃ µ says, Ã¢â¬Å"forÃ µshadow dÃ µÃ µpÃ µr shadows to comÃ µ. Ã¢â¬ ThÃ µ oddnÃ µss of thÃ µ day continuÃ µd whÃ µn DÃ µlano spottÃ µd a ship without a flag, which usually indicatÃ µd that it was a piratÃ µ ship. However, based upon how the ship was badly navigating the waters along the coast, Delano presumed that it was a ship in distress. As a result, he decided to take the whale boat to investigate and help those on board. While Delano advanced toward the ship, Melville gives the first hint of how DelanoÃ¢â¬â¢s prejudices keep him from being able to perceive the world properly.As Delano rowed toward the ship, he could not grasp the fact that it was a ship he was moving toward because he saw Negroes on the deck. At t he time, Negroes usually did not walk freely on decks, but were locked in the holds as slaves. Delano made excuses and thought the ship was impossible things, such as a monastery because he thought the black figures on deck were friars dressed in black robes. His prejudices about blacks prevented him from seeing even just simple things, including ships, accurately.Upon boarding the ship, Delano found it and its crew in horrible shape. While it was a very large and one-time fine vessel, it had become a horrendous ship looking like a funeral carriage. Barnacles encrusted the hulls and rust covered its once-fine features. The ropes were woolly and not tarred, and like Ã¢â¬Å"mourning weedsÃ¢â¬ sea grass swept over the engraved name of the ship, San Dominick. Melville writes that DelanoÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were an attempt to Ã¢â¬Å"ignore the symptoms, to get rid of the malady,Ã¢â¬ like someone trying forget about seasickness by walking around the ship.While Delano prepared to leave after his men brought back supplies, Delano invited Cereno to return with him to his ship, but Cereno refused. Delano was offended by CerenoÃ¢â¬â¢s rudeness and chose to leave the San Dominick as soon as possible. However, Cereno chased after Delano and then tightly held DelanoÃ¢â¬â¢s hand until they reached the whale boat. As DelanoÃ¢â¬â¢s whale boat started to leave, Cereno leaped into it. Delano grabbed CerenoÃ¢â¬â¢s throat thinking that Cereno was going to kill him. Babo also jumped into the boat, and tried to kill Cereno with a hidden dagger.Delano, thinking Babo was protecting his master, blocked Babo and put his foot on BaboÃ¢â¬â¢s throat. Suddenly, Delano understood what all of the events on the ship meant and the Ã¢â¬Å"scales dropped from his eyesÃ¢â¬ when he saw the other slaves trying to attack the whale boat. During the attack by Babo, the canvas covering the masthead at the front of the ship unwrapped revealing Alexandro ArandaÃ¢â¬â¢s skeleton. Delano an d Cereno escaped to the BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s Delight with Babo as a prisoner. On board the ship, Delano finally learned about the revolt.The revolt of the slaves was led by Babo and their objective was to get back to their homeland, Senegal. The slaves violently killed many of the Spanish sailors, and after killing Alexandro Aranda, they hung his skeleton at the front of the ship. The slaves used the skeleton to warn the sailors that they would Ã¢â¬Å"follow their leaderÃ¢â¬ if the sailors did not follow orders. After Delano heard CerenoÃ¢â¬â¢s story, Delano offered to give his sailors part of the Spanish cargo if they gained control of the San Dominick. The sailors boarded the Spanish ship, and killed most of the slaves.After the attack, the American sailors brought the captured slaves to the BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s Delight and shackled them to the deck. During the voyage to Lima, Peru, the sailors stabbed, killed and poked some of the slaves with knives as revenge for the revolt. At t he court trial held when they arrived in Lima, Cereno testified at his deposition and explained what had occurred during the revolt. Many of the slaves were found guilty, including Babo who had never spoken again after his capture, even at his execution. Following the trial, Delano and Cereno had a final conversation together.Cereno was disappointed with Delano because he could not comprehend CerenoÃ¢â¬â¢s signs warning of him of danger on the ship. Delano told Cereno to forget about what happened that day because he had already forgotten about his own errors. Thus, Delano forgot and did not learn from the experience. Delano also asked Cereno what was casting a shadow on him, and Cereno replied that it was the Negro. Cereno left Lima to become a monk and died three months later. DelanoÃ¢â¬â¢s prejudices and clouded perspective led him to misperceive the behavior of the slaves.He believed that whites were the better race and that blacks were a completely different species, like a nimals, describing the Negroes like dogs and the Negresses like cheetahs and doves. He also believed that Negroes made good servants because of their natural calm and simple and limited thinking. Thus, while Delano thought Babo was very weak and stupid because of his size and race, he believed he was a loyal servant. However, Babo was really a strong leader because he planned and led the slave revolt.Furthermore the sweet and loving Negresses were really the most vicious people on the ship because Cereno, in his deposition, said that they wanted to torture and kill all of the sailors. Even when Delano saw the slaves abuse and stab the white sailors, he believed they were actually docile because he had read a book about a tribe of docile wild Africans. Therefore, DelanoÃ¢â¬â¢s prejudices made him unable to believe that the slaves could revolt against white sailors. Melville depicted the cycle of violence of slavery as a warning of what could happen to America if it did not change i ts beliefs.Slavery is based on violence and the belief that a certain group of people are not human because of their race. The stern-piece of the ship symbolizes the cycle of violence that causes slavery. Spain originally used this symbol to show its power over the world. It is also symbolic of the slaves when they revolted and took over the ship because they violently killed the sailors in order to hold them down. Finally, Delano completed the cycle when he captured Babo, copying the symbol in real life. Spain, a once-great power, never stopped the cycle of slavery, and by 1799, it was falling apart like the San Dominick.America, in 1799, was the new world power that Melville feared would become like Spain if it did not end slavery. MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s fears were correct since slavery was the main cause of the American Civil War. However, MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s warning about prejudice still applies even today. Ã¢â¬Å"Benito CerenoÃ¢â¬ is a very complex short story with a very important message about slavery. The story has many sophisticated and symbolic points. This story is recommended for people who enjoy sailing and studying about AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s views during the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Coming to the New World essays Coming to the New World was a major advancement in the lives of many Spanish, French, and English people between the years of 1942-1629. The migration effected the lives dramatically. They will come to see that in the coming years almost everything will change from religion to their types of settlement. The role of religion was very important, for it had an immense power over the European society. Christianity converted all of Europe including the Spanish, French, and English. Christian doctrine provided a common understanding of God. The church provided authority and discipline in the society. Every village had a church, which thought that Satan constantly challenged God by tempting people into evil. Christianity had played an important role in Portugal and Spain, but it divided Europe into Catholics and Protestants. A protestant rebellion in the Spanish Netherlands drained the wealth of the Spanish and gave resources to expand into North America and brought a new impact of European and Indian people. Over time, the Catholic Church had become very large and wealthy, controlling resources throughout Europe. In 1517, a German monk and professor, Martin Luther, sold indulgences. These were church certificates that pardoned a sinner from punishments in the afterlife. He was excommunicauhujuujjujjted by the pope and threatened with punishment by King Charles I of Spain. He was protected by a northern German princess and could not be arrested. After Luther, came a French theologian from Switzerland named John Calvin. He stressed omnipotence of God and the corruption of human nature. He preached the doctrine of predestination, the idea that God chose certain people for salvation even before they were born. He appeared to Christians and said to people that they needed a personal relationship with God. Calvin believed in a God that gave what he received and also that saintly people could change government. People starte...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Building J at Monte Alban at the Zapotec Site The mysteriously-shaped Building J at the Zapotec site of Monte Albn in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, has been thought to have been built for astronomical and ritual purposes. Building J was likely first built about 1AD, with three main phases of construction, the most recent one between about AD 500-700. Architectural Design The building has a roughly pentagonal outline and it is skewed 45% in orientation from the remainder of the buildings at the site by many degrees. The building is oddly shaped, and its shape been variously described as a baseball diamond, home plate, or arrowhead. Low relief carvings on the building include a crossed-sticks glyph, thought to represent astronomical symbols. In addition to its remarkable exterior outline, it has a horizontal tunnel cut through it, and an outer staircase thats skewed another few degrees from the direction of the door. Orientation and the Star Capella Building Js architectural orientation is thought by researchers to point to the location of the star Capella. Capella is indicated by the orientation point of the building on May 2, when the sun reaches its zenith and passes directly overhead. Also KnownÃ As:Ã MonticuloÃ J Sources There are more ancient observatories to read about; and more about Monte Alban and the Zapotecs as well. Aveni, Anthony. 2001. Building J at Monte Alban. pp 262-272 in Skywatchers: A Revised and Updated Version of Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. University of Texas Press, Austin. Peeler, Damon E. and Marcus Winter 1995 Building J at Monte Alban: A correction and reassessment of the astronomical hypothesis. Latin American Antiquity 6(4):362-369.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Is liberal democracy the best government system Critically assess - Essay Example Bell (2006) extrapolates that, theoretically, one system can be perceived to be better than the other but in an ideal setting, and this may be otherwise. Deutsch & Soffer (1987) argue that this is because it is subjective to describe or define something to be the best as it depends on the modalities employed in the evaluation. North Korea Republic can be used as a case study since some may perceive its tyrant military to be oppressive and as the worst system of governance which suppresses the private sector and infringes the fundamental rights of its citizens (Eagles, Johnston & Holoman, 2004). According to Deutsch & Soffer (1987), liberal democracy can be described as a form or type of governances where principles related to liberalism are upheld and valued. The main principle of liberalism is the provision of protection rights of persons. In addition, these principles are usually embedded in the laws of nations that practice this form of government. On the other hand, Eagles, Johnston & Holoman (2004) illuminate that the features of liberal democratic countries are the existence of elections that are deemed free, fair and competitive among different existing political parties; separations of power between the various facets of government; and the application of rules of law in daily activities. The rights of the civilians, and humans, as well as freedom are not only highly embraced and protected. Bell (2006) point out that countries that practice this form of government usually have a constitution that stipulates the way in which its citizens are governed. Chan (2004) ex plains that the constitution can either be in written form or unwritten form. There are various constitutional forms of liberal democracies. For instance, some countries practice the republican constitutional forms of governance such as the US while others practice the constitutional monarch such as the United Kingdom. Eagles,
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Islamic Banking System. Case of Malaysia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words
Islamic Banking System. Case of Malaysia - Essay Example Similar to conventional banking, Islamic banks also collect the additional savings of people and then those savings are extended to those needy sectors of economy. In past, few researches have been developed to find out the relationship between the interest rate increase and funds flow from Islamic banking. This paper analyses the relationship between deposit returns of Islamic and conventional banks with an alternative econometric technique involving Units Root Test to estimate the presence of stationarity and Granger Causality test to estimate the linkage between the deposit returns of the two banking systems. The basic objective of this study is to find out the impact of the change in return deposits of one banking system on to the other. Thus, this study assists the policy makers in determining the role of Islamic banking in the overall economic, fiscal and monetary environment of the country. Introduction The purpose to conduct this study is to examine the level of substitutabil ity in the depository returns under Islamic and conventional banking system. This study comprises on the comparison of the data relating depository returns between the Islamic banking system and the conventional banking system which includes commercial, merchant banks and other financial institutions. Malaysia is considered as a case study in which both Islamic and conventional systems are aimed to be operated on parallel basis by the monetary authorities. In 1983, the first ever Islamic bank that was established in Malaysia was Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB). The Islamic banks truly started competition with their conventional counterparts in 1993 when Islamic banking scheme (IMS) was introduced by the Government of Malaysia. This scheme permits the conventional banks to introduce and participate in the products and services initially designed by Islamic banks. By the end of 2002, Total Islamic banking deposits were 10.20% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s total deposits. Since Malaysian f inancial system is under the sole control of Central Bank of Malaysia, therefore the evidence that there are relationships between TDRs of Islamic and conventional banks and the monetary policy is argued under this study. In case if the there is no substitutability between the rates of depositing and financing in both Islamic and conventional banking systems, then relatively lesser restrictive effects of monetary policy can be observed in this regard. For instance, interest rates are used as a tool by the Central banks to adjust the money supply flowing in the economy. Interest rates are increased or decreased to tighten or loosen the flow of money circulating in the economy respectively. The same phenomenon cannot be established in the Islamic banking system as the depositors are not offered a fixed rate of deposit returns. There is a likelihood that if the required rate of deposit returns on Islamic banking products is not ensured to at least the amount of that conventional bankin g products, the depositors of Islamic banks would switch to other financial instruments of the conventional banks because of fact that the Islamic banking products would be of little use for the monetary purposes. Literature Review The individual saving behaviours are mainly explained by the interest rates offered in the economy as one of the key considerations. The interest rate offerings are considered as a key element because different banks offer different rates of depository returns on varying schemes of deposits. Interest rates are determined mainly because of the concept of time value of money. The longer the time that deposits takes in maturity, the higher will be the yield required by the depositors. For examples, the
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Methods - Research Proposal Example It finally identifies an ideal model for the presentation of this data to various stakeholders to ensure that they give their economic and social support for the regeneration of DundeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Waterfront area to a world-class city. The research ends with the description of deliverables that must be presented by DundeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Waterfront to various stakeholder groups. Keywords: Dundee City, Dundee Central Waterfront, Investors, Stakeholders, Competitive City Introduction Dundee City is embarking on a project to expand DundeeÃ¢â¬â¢s city centre down to the Central Waterfront Area (Dundee Waterfront Vision). The Dundee Waterfront area encompasses four main sections of the city of Dundee located near they Tay Riverside (Dundee Waterfront Business Current Project)This project is to create a new iron grid system reminiscent to the connections made by the Romans in the city over 1,500 years ago. It also seeks to improve numerous facilities in the city and also go further to regenerate various elements of the city to place it in the category of other competitive European and Global cities (Dundee City Official Website). The project started in 2001 and is expected to end in the year 2031. Currently, there is the need for investors to sink capital into the various projects to create the background for future development of the city. Also, there is the need to attract and promote the city positively before its stakeholders, particularly present and future residents. Research Objectives McMillan & Weyers (2010) states that every academically recognised research project must have a set of clearly defined objectives that the research will be based upon. The purpose of this research are to: 1. Create the definitive platform for the critical analysis of stakeholders to the Central Waterfront Area development project at this present point in time. 2. Identify optimum uses of sites for investors, settlers and stakeholders 3. The description of the data collec tion methods to be used for the collection of preliminary data for the project 4. The identification of investor and other stakeholder presentation model Literature Review Bryman, (2008) states that for an academic research work to have the relevant credibility and acceptability in the world of academia, there is the need for the researchers to review analyse and present groundbreaking definitions, models and system through secondary literature. First of all, the literature review of this research will be based on the elements and features of a competitive city. From preliminary analysis, the paper should focus on the sector approach, institutional approach and conditions for settlement defined by Sako & Murie, (2010) to lay out the potential and optimum land use type that the presentations to stakeholders must dwell upon. The sector approach involves the zoning of city centres being regenerated optimally between creative industries and knowledge intense industries. The creative ind ustries include arts, media, entertainment, creative business services, publishing, advertising and designing. This will ensure that the city will be promoted in other places where consumers will use these patents that are produced in the city in question. Knowledge
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Utilitarian Consequentialist Viewpoint in Human Cloning Introduction Human cloning has been a contentious subject marked with heated debate. However, most people seem to incline to the position that human cloning at the present time is unethical for a number of reasons including the likelihood of harm to participants and the safety of techniques used. An action is considered ethical if it portrays a commitment to honor other. This is the focus of the utilitarian consequentialist position, to maximize others overall good, as well as, the good of ones self. From a utilitarian consequentialist viewpoint, human cloning is considered unethical. This paper is an evaluation of the utilitarian consequentialist viewpoint concerning the issue of human cloning. Human Cloning To those in favor of human cloning, their arguments often revolve around the idea of addressing reproduction; however, such arguments tend to focus on the narrow benefits involved (Caplan, 2014). This does not mean that such arguments lack merit; some arguments in favor of human cloning in some way uphold the most meaningful and deepest shared societal values. In anticipation of human cloning, proponents have raised possible benefits including avoiding the risk of genetic diseases, allow couples of the same sex to have children, a solution to infertility, replace lost children or spouses and replication of talent. On the other hand, opponents have their own reasons revolving on the ethics of the technological application. For example, violation of the convention moral norms experimenting on humans, potential harm on cloned individuals and the effect of the technology on the relationship between generations (Devolder, 2013). However, both sides concur on the need to reflection on the social and ethical implication of human cloning. Utilitarian Consequentialist Viewpoint and Evaluation Utilitarian consequentialism is founded on the idea that an action is evaluated in terms of pleasure and pain in causes; utilitarianism attempt to weigh the two options in arriving at a moral decision that yields the least pain and most happiness. Concerning the issue of human cloning, a utilitarian consequentialist would weigh the pleasure and pain produced by the technology (Petrillo, 2014). Nevertheless, it does not mean that because human cloning may result in overall happiness for a greater majority, it is ethically accepted. It is true that human cloning has a number of potential positive benefits as mention earlier; however, it also has its own negative aspect. From a utilitarian consequentialist viewpoint, after weighing the perceived pleasure and potential pains, human cloning should not be permitted as it would result in more pain to the cloned individuals and the society since the clones will exist as copies or spare part of the existing humans. The utilitarian consequentialist viewpoint in human cloning holds some water and is arguable to be valid because allowing human cloning will be like setting the foundation for capacities that can alter humans at the genetic level. It is evident from previous human actions that actions of this nature have had a significant effect on the human genetic pool (Kuhse, Schuklenk Singer, 2015). For example, the treatment of diabetes using insulin has prolonged the lives of individuals with diabetes that would have died before reproducing and thus has contributed to an increase in diabetes gene in the population genetic pool. Engagement in human cloning without reflecting on the potentially serious and unanticipated consequence would be a great mistake in the human history. Given the importance of what is a stake, the scientist should be modest in attempting to alter human procreation and life, particularly when there is no compelling reason. Alongside the many potential negative consequence s to the society and the cloned individuals, this justifies utilitarian consequentialist viewpoint in human cloning. Conclusion Though it may not be possible to know the long-term consequences of human cloning, the utilitarian consequentialist viewpoint holds that human cloning should not be permitted as it would result in more pain to cloned individuals and the society. The proponents and opponents of human cloning seem to concur on the need to reflect on the social and ethical implication of human cloning, thus pointing to the justification of the utilitarian consequentialist viewpoint in human cloning. References Caplan, A. (2014). Raymond Waggoner Lectures-Arthur Caplan, What is Wrong With Human Cloning?: The Ethics of Technological Reproduction, 1998. Devolder, K. (2013). Were it physically safe, reproductive human cloning would be acceptable Kuhse, H., Schuklenk, U., Singer, P. (2015). Bioethics: an anthology(Vol. 40). John Wiley Sons. Petrillo, S. (2014). Moral Theories and Cloning in Kazuo Ishiguros Never Let Me Go. Berkeley Undergraduate Journal, 27(1).
Friday, October 25, 2019
Karl Marx was an influential character of history, a man of tremendous intelligence as well as a great inspiration to many philosphers and people past and present. Karl Marx was a man of action for the less fortunate class, in that sense his theories are not wrong, to a certain extent they are positve inquisitions. It is those whom have practiced Marx theories that have misinterpreted his works giving Karl Marx a negative demeanor. Specifically Lenin and Stalin are two leaders who have brought shame to the works of Karl Marx and make this philospher seem like a barbarian. " Marx is a humanitarian because he took the side of the working class."-Overstreet Marx is considered a humanitarian because he was in favor of the non exploitation of the lowest class. His main concern was for the individual in society, Karl Marx's studies yield that he wanted the individuals of civilation to live fulfilled lives. In Karl Marx's economic policies he states that " The workers labor power is a commodity." This holds truth, a workers labor is very valuable, like goods that are sold by a merchant. His labor is not to be taken advantage of because he is an individual fending for a living to survive. Marx states in his teachings that because workers are such a commodity to society that a laborer should not be undermined or exploited, such as the slaves...
Thursday, October 24, 2019
NOUR BAHRI EN1111 Academic Writing M. Antoniadou 29th October2012 Analysis essay of Ã¢â¬Å"AriaÃ¢â¬ by Richard Rodriguez (2nd draft) This essay, titled Ã¢â¬Å"AriaÃ¢â¬ , originally published in 2008, is an autobiographic essay of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, Richard RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢. In his essay, Richard is against bilingual educators, who think that children in their first years of school should be educated in their native language. According to him this education system is wrong, wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be beneficial, therefore children should be educated in the same language as the public one.RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s main point is to strongly encourage children of immigrant parents to adopt English, the Ã¢â¬Å"public languageÃ¢â¬ as their main language in order to become assimilated in the Ã¢â¬Å"public societyÃ¢â¬ and have a better future. Ricardo describes his childhood as a child of Mexican immigrant parents studying in an English school in America, where he had problems in commu nicating at school because he did not know the Ã¢â¬Å"public languageÃ¢â¬ , English.At first, he was shy and timid at school because he was feeling uncomfortable with English, but with his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s help he Ã¢â¬Å"raised his hand to volunteer an answerÃ¢â¬ , from that day he Ã¢â¬Å"moved very far from the disadvantaged childÃ¢â¬ (288). He then started feeling as an American citizen. Although Rodriguez admits that he lost the strong intimacy at home with his parents, he emphasizes that the Ã¢â¬Å"loss implies the gainÃ¢â¬ (291). Rodriguez supports his argument against bilingual education by using mainly the contrast technique in order for the readers to become more sensitive to his topic and argumentRichardÃ¢â¬â¢s entire essay is based on the contrast between Ã¢â¬Å"the lossÃ¢â¬ in private and Ã¢â¬Å"the gainÃ¢â¬ in public. By presenting those two opposed extremes, readers become more sensitive to his argument as his essay becomes more reali stic. In the part of the private loss, Ricardo faces problems at home, since he came to believe that he was an American citizen, Ã¢â¬Å"at leastÃ¢â¬ (288). So the past refers to before Richard believes that he was an American citizen at the age of 7. Ricardo uses frequently the negation arks in order to support that they remained a loving family, but one greatly changed, Ã¢â¬Å"No longer so close: no longer boundÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"neither my older brother nor sisterÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Nor did IÃ¢â¬ this last in a separate sentence to accentuate his position and the negation (288). He contrasts this new situation with the one they had in the past where Ã¢â¬Å"after dinner each night, the family gatheredÃ¢â¬ (287). Readers feel that in the past family bonds and ties were stronger and the house was full of joy and laughs, Ã¢â¬Å"everyone laughedÃ¢â¬ (287).Thereby, Richard used Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"we playedÃ¢â¬ ) as for him and his family that has a stronger meaning and connota tion since they where feeling closer, as a whole. But also, in the past Richard was impatient to go back home, where he could actually speak the language, now he says, Ã¢â¬Å"gone was the desperate, urgent, intense feeling of being at homeÃ¢â¬ (288). Furthermore, after this feeling of closeness diminished, Ã¢â¬Å"silenceÃ¢â¬ started taking place in the house as Richard explains that Ã¢â¬Å"as we children learned more and more English, we shared fewer and fewer words with our parentsÃ¢â¬ (288).So in the past, children were more comfortable in speaking Spanish with their parents and spoke a language, which the parents actually understand and respond with ease, the house was full of Ã¢â¬Å"language of homeÃ¢â¬ (286). By speaking English so much, a gap between Richard and his parents grew. After this process of Americanization, Ã¢â¬Å"the silence at home, however, was finally more than a literal silenceÃ¢â¬ (289). He uses a lot words in relation to the ear and hearing as Ã¢ â¬Å"soundsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"listenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"listeningÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"heardÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"speakingÃ¢â¬ (289).Furthermore, Spanish started becoming unfamiliar to him and English, which is the Ã¢â¬Å"public languageÃ¢â¬ became his Ã¢â¬Å"primary languageÃ¢â¬ . In the past he used to call his parents Ã¢â¬Å"mama and papaÃ¢â¬ , and now that English is his primary language he calls them Ã¢â¬Å"motherÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ (289). At the end of his essay Richard said that his Ã¢â¬Å"childhood started to endÃ¢â¬ the day he took the decision that his wants to feel like an American citizen.Richard, most probably, associates the word childhood with his past, before he came to believe that he was an American citizen; a past where he had strong bonds with his parents, the feeling of security and other that they are his parents, Spanish united them. However, as he became less confident with his private identity, he started becoming increasingly confident of his new pu blic identity because the belief that he belonged in public had taken hold. Richard presents in his essay the other side of the Ã¢â¬Å"gameÃ¢â¬ , of learning English and feeling as an American citizen because as he said Ã¢â¬Å"the loss implies the gainÃ¢â¬ (291).By the gain he means the gain in public, public identity. An important dramatic event occurred, it is the one that resulted in a big change in RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s life. And this was the day Richard raised his hand in class to volunteer an answer. This event brought him a lot forward, as he was no longer feeling as a disadvantaged child. Moreover, as Richard began to hear more and more English, Ã¢â¬Å"the high, troubling sounds of los gringosÃ¢â¬ became unnoticeable to him; he was Ã¢â¬Å"no longer an alien in gringo societyÃ¢â¬ (288). Whereas before he came to believe he was an American citizen, Ã¢â¬Å"los gringosÃ¢â¬ had a bad connotation, full of Ã¢â¬Å"bitterness or distrustÃ¢â¬ (288).Rodriguez became more conf ident of himself in speaking English, and he finally heard words, not just sounds. Richard insists in the difference between Ã¢â¬Å"sound and wordsÃ¢â¬ (which in the past sounds were helping him in understanding the situation) (288). He came to realize that Ã¢â¬Å"sound and word were tightly weddedÃ¢â¬ after his Americanization (288). He has also contrasting feelings; he was often Ã¢â¬Å"bemusedÃ¢â¬ and always Ã¢â¬Å"relievedÃ¢â¬ to realize how Ã¢â¬Å"silent, though crowded with wordsÃ¢â¬ his day in public had been (288). Richard means that, since he was feeling more comfortable with English, the words were more powerful and meaningful.Before the dramatic event, English was a Ã¢â¬Å"foreign languageÃ¢â¬ to him, he felt like a Ã¢â¬Å"strangerÃ¢â¬ to it (287). Becoming more familiar with English helped Richard to achieve many things. He began doing well in school, he made friends and he was feeling more comfortable talking to people in public. Assimilating to the American culture helped Richard feel more at ease among the other American students. So we understand that the Ã¢â¬Å"public identityÃ¢â¬ he achieved was a great success to him (288). Finally Richard at the end of his essay, make things more clear, and the contrast is still visible.He responds to bilingual educators, who have to distinguish between Ã¢â¬Å"private individualityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"public individualityÃ¢â¬ . While Ã¢â¬Å"becoming assimilated into public society, such assimilation makes possible the achievement of public individualityÃ¢â¬ (290). Richard points out that Ã¢â¬Å"in public, by contrast, full individuality is achievedÃ¢â¬ (290). So according to him, the public gain is really important and that is why in his essay the Ã¢â¬Å"gainÃ¢â¬ is stressed more than the Ã¢â¬Å"lossÃ¢â¬ . To conclude, in his autobiographic essay, Richard successfully used the contrast technique in order to give a full image of his argument and be more convincing.There was a deep intimacy with his family and the painful feeling of public alienation. However, as he grew up and with his Americanization, this became only the past; meaning that there were no longer good bonds in the family and in public he gained an identity and individuality. Rodriguez offers a contrasting truth: while our heritage and culture may remain forever tied to our native language, the only way we can truly become a part of our community and fit in is to dominate the current spoken language. Word count: 1280 Work Citation: Rodriguez, Richard. The Norton Reader;2008, ww Norton Company,
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Identify who you believe to be Manchester UnitedÃ¢â¬â¢s key stakeholders and evaluate their influence in relation to the ethical stance taken by the company. Ethical stance defined by Johnson and Scholes as: Ã¢â¬Ëthe extent to which an organisation will exceed it minimum obligations to stakeholders and society at large.Ã¢â¬â¢Four possible ethical stances exist and are stereotypes for any organisation. The first ethical stance is short-term shareholder interests; a company who stick very close to laws and regulations which are in place. They give and do only what they are obliged to, this usually causes problems with long-term financial decisions. The second stance is longer-term shareholder interests Ã¢â¬â a company who are very focused on building and maintaining reputation in relation to its financial success. They take into consideration all stakeholders and how they can effect the organisation in the future. The third stance is multiple stakeholder obligations Ã¢â¬â relating to a company taking wide consultation with all stakeholders. This is a very slow process and not a good stance for a fast moving and growing company. The last stance is shaper of society Ã¢â¬â companies who focus on communities and want to build them up; this stance puts the financial interest second and is usually related to charitable organisations. Manchester United matches the second stance Ã¢â¬â Longer-term shareholder interests. They are focused on building reputation using players, clothing, technology, media and many other ways to promote their team and brand. They are known globally using strong marketing methods and this has greatly aided their financial goals. As a global organisation they have a number of stakeholders, each of these can be categorised into the amount of power and interest they have, using stakeholder mapping. This model is called the Power/Interest matrix (shown below) and indicates the type of relationships held or should be held between stakeholders and the organisation. INSERT DIAGRAM AS DISCUSSED ABOVEManchester UnitedÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders can be considered as the following:Ã¢â¬ ¢ManagersÃ¢â¬ ¢Owners/shareholdersÃ¢â¬ ¢EmployeesÃ¢â¬ ¢CustomersÃ¢â¬ ¢SuppliersÃ¢â¬ ¢Partners/SponsorsÃ¢â¬ ¢Players Ã¢â¬ ¢SupportersÃ¢â¬ ¢Community groupsÃ¢â¬ ¢InvestorsÃ¢â¬ ¢Media Ã¢â¬ ¢GovernmentsStakeholders within segment A are of very little power and interest, Manchester United can keep these stakeholders informed but are not of high importance. Segment B contains stakeholders of high interest yet low power. They will need to be kept informed and also to a certain degree, need to be kept interested in the teams actions. Segment C contains stakeholders who have high power and low interest, they are at times content with what is going on but like to be kept informed, at any time these stakeholders can make a drastic change and merge with Segment D. Segment D are the key players who need to be of high importance to Manchester United, they need to be well informed and satisfied at all times. They will have very strong pulls on decisions and changes being made. Each stakeholder has individual expectations of the club and a certain degree of power. Not all stakeholders will have power or interest in the team, but they do fit into the Matrix appropriately. I will look at each stakeholder individually and stated where and why they below in the segment they are placed. Taking into appreciation that the ethical stance, which Manchester United is seen to have, (Longer-term shareholder interests) itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to place each stakeholder within the matrix. Manchester United work on building a positive and well known reputation and in turn this builds their financial frontier. ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s this includes managers on the football pitch and in stores selling team merchandise. They may have high power within their own domain but within the wider view of the matrix they can have low power and high interest. This places them in segment B. Their interest will be related to performance in their particular areas. The main reason for this interest could be related to promotion and salary. Owners and shareholders have high interest and high power as they are the main source for profit, falling into segment D. Without the shareholders there would be very low financial statuses and they would not be able to fund their reputation. They have high power in making final decisions and are most important to influence, when looking at corporate governance. Employees can have very low power and at times low interest in reputation and management. At this stage they would be categorised as segment A. Generally the employees who would fall into this segment would be those who consider the job as a way to pay their bills. They have no real value in the job; if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work for Manchester United then they would work elsewhere. Football players as employees of the organisation have high power and interest depending on their famous status. For example in the case study David Beckham would have been placed in segment D as he is a landmark player wanted by almost every football team imaginable. He can use this to his advantage influencing decisions and other stakeholders to his way of thinking. Investors, Suppliers and community groups are seen, to be kept informed but have little if no power (segment B). Investors in particular want to know if their investment will produce a return, so at times they are not interested in using power or having much interest. Suppliers have little power as the team have a strong demand from others wanting to supply their needs. Just by them being linked to Manchester United makes them more desirable to otherÃ companies. Customers and Supporters are one of the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s main sources of revenue; most will pay ridiculous amounts for season passes to games home/away and will spend more on memorabilia. They have a high interest in their team and as a result of this they have high power (segment D). Manchester United knows if they make a change that customers and supporters wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t support that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a positive alteration to be made. Partners and sponsors want to be kept informed of the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s progress and financial status as they are linked to the reputation of the team. Such partners and sponsors of Manchester United are Vodafone, Nike, Budweiser, Air Asia, Audi and AIG. These companies are related to Manchester United for marketing and financial reasons. They all have high power and high interest. They want them to promote their products in a good light and on a global scale, and they use the team to do so. If they see the team facing a downfall they can remove themselves and choose another team to promote. This gives them a very high power over the team and influence over decisions (Segment D)The media are highly important stakeholders to keep interested and informed at all times. Media are there to inform all stakeholders about the good and bad even though this can be manipulated at times. This results in the team keeping them very satisfied and informed at the same time (segment D). After taking into consideration all key stakeholders itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear to see, who have the strongest power and or interest, in relation to the ethical stance of Manchester United. Each stakeholder will have their own reasons for using their power and interest and itÃ¢â¬â¢s highly important for Manchester United to make sure these stakeholders are kept informed and satisfied with the way the team is managed in all areas of their ethical stance. The stakeholder mapping is can change at any time and needs to be kept in close consideration before and after alterations. Q2. Critically evaluate how the key cultural characteristics of Manchester United (including values, beliefs and taken for granted assumptions) mayÃ have changed from pre -1990 until today. What are the implications of these changes for current and future strategies?After extensive research of Manchester United itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear to see a big change in their cultural characteristics from the day they began playing football, to this present day. The team began in 1878 as a group of workers from Lancashire and Yorkshire railways and they began to play for local leagues and competitions. In 1902 they became an independent organisation called Newton Heath F.C. Looking at the organisations culture past and present it can be broken down into four layers, shown below:INSERT DIAGRAM AS DISCUSSED ABOVEThis breaks the organisation the Paradigm, Behaviours, Beliefs and Values; looking at each Manchester United has changed dramatically over time. The early years seen values and beliefs built on players and local communities, concentrating on the game itself and building a reputation for winning against local rivalries. At this time their only taken-for-granted assumptions were that they could win games and not worry about finance resulting in them almost going bankrupt. From the beginning itÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent they loved the game itself and were clearly not financial focused. Brian Oliver commented in a newspaper article online saying Ã¢â¬Å"Before 1990 there was no such thing as a sports supplement, it was just about the game and the fans. It was just strong relationship between fans, their families and the playersÃ¢â¬ . This comment proves the team were focused on less material objects; they were there to entertain and have fun. Their determination was proven after a number of set backs, such as one presented in the case study Ã¢â¬â The Munich plane crash. This had a huge impact on performance, but they showed they were strong-minded about the game and keeping it alive. Using the Strategy Lenses theory of Design, Experience and Ideas itÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent at this stage the lenses most concentrated on where ideas andÃ design. This was by becoming an independent team and designing the kit and colours which were then modified yearÃ¢â¬â¢s later. Looking at the culture web of Manchester United we see a representation of the taken-for-granted assumptions of the organisation and the physical side of their culture (diagram below), this concentrates on the two inner layers of the four layer diagram previously mentioned. Come 1990 the whole culture of Manchester United changed, they became very focused on the financial side of the game. A real Madrid spokesperson commented Ã¢â¬Å"football clubs are marketing brands, not teamsÃ¢â¬ ¦itÃ¢â¬â¢s no longer a case of doing well on the pitch; the more merchandise you sell, the better.Ã¢â¬ Manchester United began to focus on building a global reputation through players, such as David Beckham; so to build a brand. Over the years less and less players from the local communities where being brought on the team and today most players on the team are not from England. The team no longer focused on building the local communities and their young players. As stated in the case study Ã¢â¬ËManchester United is now marketed as the national team Ã¢â¬â which has taken it away from the roots and its local community. Football should be a love affair otherwise you are just a business. The big clubs have forgotten their roots and are isolating themselves.Ã¢â¬â¢ Also comments of concern regarding the local schools and junior football teams being the next generation of players were being forgotten by the big teams. This information is related to the stories section of the culture web and shows just how the culture has moved form being relaxed to being very fast pace. The symbol of the team is their kit and logo which can be found anywhere, from online to in your local stores. From 1990 on this symbol has become one of the most recognisable symbols globally. The power structures have changed from being the team players to becoming the stakeholders which in question one fall into the Matrix in section D. These stakeholders have power over the organisation and the way they are run and how their reputation is perceived. The Organisational structure is a typical hierarchy and uses a formal structure of command. The control systems in Manchester United are focused on finance and go by a corporate governance structure. This is monitors by a number of agents and involves presenting each stakeholder with the correct information at all times in regards to shares, profits and expenditures. The ritual and routines of Manchester United before 1990 were focused on the players and the game itself, making it a family orientated sport. After 1990 the game was about raising revenue and building the best football reputation. This is well illustrated in the case study, by stating the financial figures and share prices and how they have risen. The future of the team as the case study shows, Ã¢â¬Ëplans are well advanced in new-media technology, principally the internet and mobile telephone potential.Ã¢â¬â¢ They have previously advanced in the service industry by using BSkyB to launch their own satellite channel (MUTV), they have produced a premiere movie, provide banking facilities, introduced sports and leisure facilities along with a clothing brand to match, opened a cafÃ ©, allow weddings on their own Old Trafford grounds and launched an official website. Outside of the case study the future of Manchester united looks positive, with player transfers and progressing into new markets. In conclusion the cultural characteristics of Manchester United have changed over the years has changed dramatically and in relation to the industry it has evolved very fast. They are a club who works on building a high reputation and keeping it superior to all other clubs who are seen as their rivalries. This was the main focus in the beginning of the organisation but in a different light compared to today, as discussed previously. Their future is aimed towards staying with the ideas and design culture and as for experience it seems to be held on the pitch! References BooksJohnson, G. Scholes, K (2004). Exploring Strategy Change. 2nd ed. England: Pearson Education Limited. Pgs136-138. Johnson, G. Scholes, K. Whittington, R (2005). Exploring Corporate Strategy. 7th ed. England: Pearson Education Limited. Pgs56-57, Pgs164-170, Pgs179-211. Lynch, R (2006). Corporate Strategy. 4th ed. England: Pearson Education Limited. Pg5, Pgs416-423. WebsitesMind Tools Ltd. (2007). The Cultural Web: Aligning your organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture with strategy. Available: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_90.htm. Last accessed 22 November 2007. Unknown. (2007). Stake holder mapping: Aligning your organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture with strategy. 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