Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The constitutional issues that the people have raised on drones are the right to privacy, which is guaranteed in the fourth amendment. The Fourth Amendment protects against Ã¢â¬Å"unreasonable searches and seizures. Ã¢â¬ It guarantees AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ right to privacy and requires police to obtain warrants or have Ã¢â¬Å"probable causeÃ¢â¬ to search someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s property. This could violate the constitution because should police be require to obtain warrants to take photos and collect other information with the Drones? Then in the Fifth Amendment it guarantees Americans accused of crimes the right to Ã¢â¬Å"due processÃ¢â¬ under the law. The accused are entitled to a legal representation and to see the evidence thatÃ¢â¬â¢s being used against them. This could violate the Constitution because drone strikes aimed at killing American terrorist suspects in foreign countries could violate the Amendment. I share the concern for the violation of the Fourth Amendment, because I would feel that IÃ¢â¬â¢m under watch all the time, and that at any time the Police could be collecting information or taking pictures of me because they have the equipment to do so. Then what if they used these pictures and information to give them a probable cause to search my house, but they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find what they were looking for. The technically violated my privacy for no reason. When most people hear the word drone, they probably this of how the drones have been used in the last decades. Which were the drones were used to kill suspected terrorist in hot spots like Pakistan and Yemen. Or one particular incident that attracted a lot of attention was in September 2011, the C. I. A. drone strike in Yemen killed an American citizen, a radical cleric who preached holy war, which violated his Fifth Amendment rights. This might affect the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s receptiveness to the domestic use of drones because a new federal law paved the way for drones to be used commercially in the U. S. nd made it easier for government agencies to obtain them. The Department of Homeland Security even offered grants to help local authorities buy drones. Various sensors, included cameras can even be attached to the drone. Senator Patrick Leahy said that this fast-emerging technology is cheap and could pose a significant threat to the privacy and civil liberties of millions of Americans. It is another example of a fast-changing policy which we need to focus to make sure it is used correctly.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Do you think all of the characters in Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ are prejudged? (25 Marks) In Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ most of the characters are subjected to discrimination and prejudice. The prejudice can be seen most in the characters Lennie Small, Crooks and CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife was a subject of Prejudice because she was a woman. During the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s place was to be at home raising a family, also women were seen as second class citizens and property of their husbands. Before we meet CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife, the reader already has an opinion of her because of what the character Candy calls her- Ã¢â¬Å"jail baitÃ¢â¬ ; George calls her a Ã¢â¬Å"trampÃ¢â¬ . ItÃ¢â¬â¢s implied that she is a tart and a promiscuous woman; she craves the attention her husband doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give her. Another way prejudice against CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife is shown by Steinbeck not giving her an actual name. She is defined by her husband, she is his proper ty, displayed and treated like any other of his possessions. The irony is CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife Ã¢â¬Å"coulda been in the moviesÃ¢â¬ (her American dream) which contrast the idea of having your name in lights. Crooks and CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife are quite similar because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re pushed away from the mainstream society of the ranch, they are the outsiders. Also another thing which links CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Wife and Crooks is the lack of an actual name, Crooks is called Crook as he has a crocked back as he was kicked by a horse, the lack of a prober name dehumanises the characters, making them less important, Steinbeck uses this to highlight how different groups of people where degraded. Another character who is discriminated against is Crooks. Crooks is an African American character that is discriminated racially, he also has a crocked back. During the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s there was segregation between black and white people this is show in Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ Crook is segregated from the rest of the Ranch workers. His room is on the edge o f the ranch, which highlights how much of an outsider he is. When we see CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ room for the first time itÃ¢â¬â¢s less than basic, Ã¢â¬ CrookÃ¢â¬â¢s was a long box filled with hayÃ¢â¬ this is another form of discrimination as he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t treated equally, his room shows how black people where thought of Ã¢â¬â lesser people. Ã¢â¬Å"hayÃ¢â¬ is associated with animals partially horses this could suggest that the Boss thinks of Crooks as an animal and belongs outside. Crooks donÃ¢â¬â¢t say much in the book, because during that time black people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a voice and would be judged on what they said. Crooks and Lennie are also similar because there outcasts, both characters are excluded from nights out with other ranch workers andÃ games that the others play when they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t working. Lennie Small is one of the main characters in the book. He is mentally disabled and has the mind of a child. Lennie is a misunderstood character who has good intentions but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the impact of his actio ns. The only character Lennie has a close relationship to George, who sees him as a burden blocking the way to his American dream. An example of Lennie being misunderstood is when he and George were in Weed, he touched the girls dress because it was soft and it ripped, and then they both had to leave as Lennie was accused of attempted rape. In the book Lennie is discriminated against Crooks. Crooks takes advantage of LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of metal capacity, Crooks was subjected to racial hatred as the hands of white people and uses Lennie to get back at them. Crooks implies that George wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come back and heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be alone. Lennie is treated differently because the other men donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand him as little was known about mental illness during the time.
Monday, July 29, 2019
While there are existing businesses and constantly changing competitive business environments, the skills required to not only run a business but to sustain its performance and, more importantly, to rise above the rest are deemed of utmost significance. Although the employees in a specific companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce are separate individuals in one way or another, it cannot be doubted that the overall performance of the workforce poses a great amount of influence in the total functioning of every company. While achieving this particular objective, this also causes stress in the workforce which may led to a decrease in productivity levels of employees. This is one of the reasons why stress management procedures are crucial to every business venture. More importantly, a great deal of the creation and management of teams to make them more effective rests at the heart of business undertakings if they feel like they are not working at all.Ã Read also Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Similar to a well-oiled machine composed of individual but interrelated parts, it can be said that business management teams, in order to accomplish and even surpass their goals, are expected to work together fluently and effectively with the indispensable addition of satisfaction and low stress levels. The smooth interaction and constant dealings of these people in the business organization will most likely lead to favorable consequences in the operations of the business from a larger scheme. On the other hand, the weight of the team manager in assembling a team that is composed of individuals that are not stressed fit well the positions they are to handle is of paramount importance as well. This is because a team that is created with members occupying specific positions strictly in accordance to their capabilities and related experiences is a team whose identifiable roles are devoid of apparent complications and performance-related problems related to stress (Foxman, 2006). Individual and team conflicts may never be far behind inn such a scenario in a stressful working environment. One way in order to preempt such an unwanted instance is to practice techniques that will ensure a high team performance. The Relationship of Stress and Alterations in Health In manÃ¢â¬â¢s day to day activities, there are certain factors that hinder him from functioning normally in the office. It may be physical, mental, emotional, or a combination of any of these three. As long as it incapacitates him or debilitates him from doing things normally, then it is a problem that needs to be taken care of. These factors are what are commonly known as stress. According to Peurifov, stress is defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"forces from the outside world impinging on the individual. Ã¢â¬ Putting it on the medical language, stress is considered as disruption of the balance in our bodies or homeostasis by means stimulus which is physical or psychological in nature (Peurifoy, 2005). These stress stimuli can be of different natures like mental, physiological, anatomical or physical involuntary reactions of our body. There are several processes of our body which we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really has a direct control over it. It can be an involuntary habit or reaction that usually arises when something familiar or unfamiliar happens or shows up. If the occurrence of stress made a greater impact to the person, it could be the cause of several serious changes in the person. These changes are alterations in the human health, as it is caused by stress. Once a person is exposed to a certain traumatic stress, he could be facing various changes in the limbic system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and some important neurotransmitters. Some manifestations of these alterations can be classified into hyper arousal, dissociation, numbing, and the reoccurrence of certain trauma. Stress and traumatic experiences may trigger several parts of the human brain, most especially the limbic system, which is responsible for maintaining the chemical balance of the body or homeostasis depending on the outside factors. Several networks of the neural regions can be greatly affected in the occurrence of stress and traumatic experiences (Colbert, 2005). When this occurs, the brain could have involuntary abnormal reactions to similar, non-traumatic situations. The messages being sent by the brain to the different parts of the body is affected or hampered at times. There are also several researches that points out the effects of stress on the humanÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system, as it was examined with different kinds of psychological stressors. Some highlights on the research showed that psychological stress can possibly be able to alter or change a personÃ¢â¬â¢s response to a vaccine, thus increasing the risk of infection (Glaser, 1996). It is relevant because we are able to see how the body actually reacts to the occurrence of these live viruses, and how our bodies respond to it. Stress alterations are also being tested on its effect on the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to repair the wound, since it was found that those undergoing psychological stress heals a lot slower than those who are in a normal living condition (Harding, 2006). The impending problem regarding this matter is about the lingering signs of stress after a stressful experience has occurred. An accident may have caused a post-traumatic stress disorder on a certain person, yet he is unable to notice this. Because of this, he suffers from continued impairment and incapacity as a normal human being. This could be caused by undetected injuries that could have resulted from an assault, several alterations in health behaviors, compromised immune system functioning and several stress-induced health issues (Brealey, 2006). If these concerns are not taken care of, this could lead to permanence in the alteration that he is suffering which would impair the patient for a very long period of time instead of recovering from the stress. The Case of Telstra. One case which can be used as an example is that of Telstra. Aimed at competing with major telecommunications players, the company resorted to create a business team that will seek the most desirable designs for telecommunications services as well as the innovations obtainable through benchmarking as well as an in-depth research of the industry (Siebel, 2001). In order to find the most suitable individuals that will fill-up the various positions in the team, it is an imperative for the prospective team members with varied expertise to be derived from various departments in Telstra. This way, the time to adapt to the company culture may be lessened and at the same time decrease stress in the workplace. Thus, this particular move could inhibit higher productivity. In general, the consequent results to the objective of managing stress in the team and will be reported to higher management for future stress management procedures. With several hefty expectations pending, the composition of the team should indeed be one which is devoid of or at least with very minimal complications so as to accomplish the objective of minimizing stress in the workplace completely. Primarily, the type of team being assembled is a cross-functional task force since the aim is to create a team for Telstra composed of employees coming from different departments that can be dissolved after the completion of the task with minimum stress. Conversely, the team is temporary by nature and, hence, there is a strong desire to compound the best employees of varying expertise. In the same way, this could provide an avenue for the discovery of new environments which lessens stress and competition within the company (Bruzzese, 2007). Further, there are several essential measures that must be taken in order to achieve the ends. One of these is to place the finest employee in a position in accordance to his or her expertise. Another essential measure is to highlight the common purpose of the team as well as to ensure trust among the team members and the team manager. Granting incentives and sharing motivations will aid the team surpass challenges along the way thereby also reducing stress and motivating workers at the same time. Although conflicts in the performance of each of the team members may tend to arise, the key is to be able to work with the stress in the office and still pursue the tasks at hand. Stress Management Skill of Managers Enhances Productivity Levels On the other hand, a figure of an effective manager does not only circle around the vicinity of technical and intellectual capabilities. It also requires a huge heart with sentiments not for personal advantage alone, but for the creation a harmonious relationship with the group and at the same time reducing work related stress. It does not mean that the leader, having been vested with the power to rule or govern over the organization, will be inconsiderate of his constituentsÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings. Managers must bear in mind that the position under his control requires much in conceptual and emotional skills, rather than technicalities. Internal and External Demands According to Miller, Several organizational changes which are blatantly occurring in the 21st Century pressures conventional managers to be more agile and resilient so as to meet the standard constraints in the extremities on complex and interdependent organizations, which on a state of realization is quite hard to comply (Miller, 2008). As a result, some organizations find themselves hooked a maze of mistakenly trying to be all things to be all people in an attempt to meet proficient external and internal demands and creating stress among employees along the way. The form of leadership required for organizations must align with visualization, resources, and dedication to sustain a frontward impetus in the midst of modifications in twists of challenges faced by the organization (O'Connor, 2005). This helps a lot in reducing work-related stress in the office as employees are faced with an outlook driven goal like in the case of Telstra. Leadership, as defined, is an element of interaction armed with the power to supervise, command, lead and influence members under his leadership in achieving the specified organizational goals willingly, which then implies that effective stress management is collaborative (Miller, 2008). However, the precise definition of the term seemingly confuses many for the reason that application of the word along with its function varies on the nature of the organization, its type, the contingency of the environment, and the leadership style which is to be applied. The complexity of the word is vast and puzzling which then requires conceptualization and analysis, or else a slight mistake on its utilization may shatter the organization as a whole. Human Resource Issues and Challenges to Consider Ã¢â¬â Including Suggested Solutions. The challenge to have a trained and skilled workforce is the ultimate competitive advantage for any organization. This is also an implied reason why stress should effectively be managed in the workplace (Wheeler, 2007). The rapidly expanding base of new information and technologies affects every one of us, from factory floor to business office and this causes stress. No matter how capable or successful an organization is, like Telstra, if staff training and continuing education is overlooked, there will be problems in the organization. The challenge is to get the best value for the training dollars spent by choosing training that suits the needs of the company and least impacts the bottom line. In order to meet the challenge of reducing stress in the workplace, comprehensive approach to employee development can be adopted like what Telstra does. Set goals and reach them, identifying the needs, developing the right intervention, and delivering a practical, results-oriented solution. Interactive training is designed for the adult learner, requiring involvement in the learning process (Luskin and Pelletier, 2006). Handle specialized workplace challenges with customized group training. Handle challenges specific to the organization (Siebel, 2001). A good approach is to maximize training dollars spent by tailoring content to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s explicit situation to produce the results needed. For instance, Telstra employs top-notch trainers who can combine their experiences with the latest in learning techniques in stress management for interactive sessions that emphasize skill development and application. Analysis on Stress Management. Stress Management in Telstra fragility caters two factors, the dependent and independent variables which simultaneously changes depending on the type of manager, the type of stress reducing procedure being imposed which adheres with the level of knowledge and skills required for the certain designation as well as the height of control which is to be employed (O'Connor, 2005). Stress management patterns of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation are carefully crafted and studied for the benefit of the certain organizations seeking for clarity in the intricacy of some theories, otherwise, a clashing of actions will most likely float up.
The Vice Chancellor Larking University Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3
The Vice Chancellor Larking University - Essay Example Majority of the PCs in the college use Microsoft Operating System although some of the computers are still running on Office 97. The college has achieved a milestone in networking all the computers although not all PCs have been networked there is increasing trend of networking them. With a population of about 3000 students, the University has been thinking of providing the laptop to the student the expense of which will be reduced from their fees. There has been increased pressure to make sure that the students accept the offer of the laptops because whether they accept them or not, they will still be charged in the school fees. This has been in line with the introduction of my Course system on the university website which is used by lecturers to post notes and exercises. There has also been declining number of student who is attending lecturer since they can download everything from the internet. How can the college achieve a competitive edge through the harmonization of the usage of the internet? The aim of the university in introducing the use of computers has been to ensure that there is an efficient delivery of services. Therefore it has come upon with a strategy of ensuring the all the administrative staff and the lectures use the same minimum IT/IS platform which is Intel PCs with 1GB memory and running XP and Office 2003. The University also aims at connecting all of them to the internet and Outlook email service. In the evaluation, this is one of the most important strategies that the university can use in order to achieve maximum use of computer technology in the university. If the university chose to sell the existing PCs and buying new ones, then the first step would be to find a way of storing the data based on the computers and then selling all of them. Then they would come up with a procurement procedure.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Macroecenomics - Assignment Example The graph below shows some variations in the level of exports and imports made by the UK for the period of 1993 to 1998. The same trade and production pattern is observed when it comes to France, though both import and export levels for France are lower as compared to the UK. The major products exported by France are planes, helicopters, and spacecraft and vehicle parts. The major products imported by France are rude petroleum, refined petroleum and packed medicaments. The graph below shows the variations in the levels of imports and exports produced by France between the periods of 1985 to 2005. The same case of an increase in both level of exports and imports have been experienced in USA since 1973. This is due to the general increase in the level of demand as well as the GDP, increase in the level of imports so as to sustain the industrial growth and demand. Some of the major products exported by the Unites States are cars, refined petroleum and gas turbines while imports include cars, computers and broadcasting equipments. The graph below shows the variations of the sea foods imports and exports produced by the United States between the periods of 1997 and 2007. Between the periods of the year 1975 to 2013, the United States of America have an average GDP of $ 6145.56 billion. Since then it has had an average exports products of $1769.76 billion and imports products of $117.6 billion. We have observed a lower degree in the openness of the USA with respect to the United Kingdom and France since it some peculiar commercial policies. Unlike in the UK and France, the total amount USÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP is contributed less by its imports and exports. This lowers its market degree of openness as compared to the others. The inflation rate between 2013 and 2014 will be given by the slope of my graph, it will be given by: (2.4-2.2)/ (3.5-3.6)=0.2/-0.1=-0.2, meaning that in this
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Factors for Determining the Extent to which the State has Full Control within its Territory - Essay Example In the modern world, people are living in a globally mutually dependent system where events taking place a thousand miles away have an effect on them. The world is shrinking because of globalisation, which is a political, economic, socio-cultural and technological process whereby state borders significance decrease and their citizens reside in an incorporated worldwide system. Nonetheless, government and non-government actors are demanding the supremacy of states as well as their self-governance. The attrition of state borders, as well as, the decline of state self-government is an important matter as it reduces the extent to which a state has full control within its territory. Sovereignty distinguishes a state from all the other associations. It denotes the final and ultimate legal authority and beyond, which no further legal power, exists. It has two aspects: internal sovereignty and external sovereignty. Internal sovereignty is the ultimate authority of the state over every person and association within its geographical boundaries. By virtue of internal sovereignty, the state formulates and enforces laws on people as well as associations. Any person or association who violates these laws receives a punishment. On the other hand, external sovereignty refers to the freedom of a state from foreign powers control. There is no external authority, which can limit the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s power. ... It denotes the final and ultimate legal authority and beyond, which no further legal power, exists (Keohane & Nye 2001). It has two aspects: internal sovereignty and external sovereignty. Internal sovereignty is the ultimate authority of the state over every person and association within its geographical boundaries. By virtue of internal sovereignty, the state formulates and enforces laws on people as well as associations. Any person or association who violates these laws receives a punishment. On the other hand, external sovereignty refers to the freedom of a state from foreign powers control. There is no external authority, which can limit the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s power. France is a sovereign state, and this enables it to have a considerable control within its territory. It comprises of equal persons and not separate communities. There is national sovereignty also known as top-down sovereignty, which is sovereignty of national states as well as popular sovereignty or bottom up sovereignt y, which is sovereignty of the people (Krasner 1999). In France, national sovereignty matches up to the notion that each Nation, which has an assembly of people unified by a mutual history, culture and language, retain control of the choices, which it has to come to for the common good of the people. Popular sovereignty in France is important because it is the essence of democracy; power proceeds from the people who entrust it in the interim to their elected officials. It is inalienable and delegated (Friedman 2005). People have the freedom to act, decide, and undo. Numerous organisations often operate across the borders of many countries, for instance, Microsoft, which is and an American multinational company that helps customers
Friday, July 26, 2019
Countrywide Financial - Assignment Example Role in the Subprime Mortgage Meltdown CountrywideÃ¢â¬â¢s original creation of the practice of service oriented architecture (SOA) was heralded as revolutionary and became an industry standard (Gruman, 2005). The company was the leader in loan origination with others in the industry following suit, however what is unclear and unknown is when the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal operations began to deviate from sound business practices (Jacobs, 2009; Mokhiber & Weissman, 2007). Gearino (2011) uses the example of the chaos theory to describe the affect and the influence Countrywide had on the subsequent mortgage meltdown (p. 40). He summarizes the chaos theory as Ã¢â¬Å"small deviations from the original intent or purpose of something causing varying resultsÃ¢â¬ (2011, p. 40). Subsequently, CountrywideÃ¢â¬â¢s business practices were small deviations from the standard ways in which mortgages were created and sold as mortgage backed securities (Jacob, 2009, pp. 17-25). What began as a re volutionary way of originating, underwriting, funding, and packaging mortgage loans for sale became the uncertainty of the deviations as hypotheized by Gearino (2011, p. 40).
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Ancient Greece and Rome on film - Essay Example Nero eventually threatened to destroy the peaceful order of the Rome and the main issue was the conflict between Christianity and debauchery of the Roman Empire (LeRoy, 2008). The film narrates the story of Roman military commander who fell in love with a devout Christian woman known as Lygia, who was a Roman captive because she was raised up as an adopted daughter of Aulus Plautius. The military commander, Marcus Vinicius slowly became intruded by the religion of Lygia. Their love story is narrated in a broader historical context of earlier Christianity and its persecution by Nero (Scodel and Bettenworth, 2009, p. 9). The acts of Nero became highly outrageous; thus he ended up burning Rome and started blaming Christians. Marcus went to save Lygia and her family but Nero captured them and demand both of them, as well as, Christians to be killed. However, Petronius, the trusted consultant of Nero cautioned Christians that they will be made martyrs and since he was tired of madness act s of Nero, Petronius decided to kill himself (Scodel and Bettenworth, 2009, p. 11). Marcus was later arrested due to an attempt of saving the family of Lygia and another person known as Peter was killed by being crucified upside down. Peter returned to Rome and married the couple arguing that it was a sign of the lord but he was eventually killed. In short, the story ends where Marcus is released from the prison and marries Lygia. Marcus replaced Nero and eventually people realized that he was the one who burnt Rome but not the Christians. People wanted to kill Nero but he escaped into the palace where he strangled Poppaea to death claiming that he was the one who attempted to scapegoat the Christians. In the palace, the slave of Nero appeared and offered to help Nero to terminate his life. After the death of Nero, Marcus and Lygia became free; thus they left Rome. By the roadside, the crosier that Peter had left after his return to Rome had already miraculously sprouted flowers; th us the radiant light uttered Ã¢â¬Å"I am the way, the truth and the lifeÃ¢â¬ (Scodel and Bettenworth, 2009, p. 12). The Way Filmmakers Use Roman Stories to Discuss Christianity Themes Filmmakers use Roman stories in order to discuss Christianity themes in diverse ways. One of the filmmakers that attempt to reveal the themes of Christianity is the Quo Vadis, which is an American epic film of 1951 that was directed by Mervyn LeRoy. An epic movie is a kind of film, which lays emphasis on human tragedy on a grand level and it is more ambitious in scale that any other genre films. Quo Vadis is one of the epic films because it attempts to reveal real human dramatic events or actions that took place in the ancient Roman. It attempts to reveal the way Christians were persecuted by some powerful leaders of the historical era in Rome. Quo Vadis is a Latin idiom meaning that Ã¢â¬Å"where are you goingÃ¢â¬ but the modern usage of the idiom refers to a Christian tradition regarding Saint P eter (Scodel and Bettenworth, 2009, p. 21). The Filmmakers use Roman stories to discuss the theme of persecution or martyrdom in the life of Christians. For Christians, persecution or martyrdom is one of the significant aspects that strengthen their faith. The crucifixion of Christ and his death at the cross is what altered everything including the live of Christians. For instance, the epic film of Quo Vadis offers an example of people like Saint Peter and among other Christians who were persecuted because of their
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
The Dangers of Police Work - Research Paper Example Most frequently, they respond to Ã¢â¬Ëunknown disturbances or problemsÃ¢â¬â¢ whereby a person may be asking for help but the police officer does not actually know what he/she is to expect or he/she is not able to gather more information regarding the situation (Dempsey & Forst, 2007). The duties of police officers involve operating in various kinds of circumstances, with much of their work being outdoors walking the beats assigned to them or riding in patrol cars. Their work is deemed extraordinarily dangerous Ã¢â¬â while carrying out their duties, some police officers are wounded or even killed. Police work can entail horrid tasks, which expose them to dangerous, sordid or depressing situations. They may be required to deal with all kinds of people in diverse situations. These dangers are usually traumatic for the police officers as well as their family members. Generally, police work holds the potential for the unpredicted and the unknown, and most individuals who take on this job possess a strong commitment and passion for it. Police work may involve being on duty 24 hours a day Ã¢â¬â even when not on call, the law requires a police officer to respond to criminal activity or to emergencies, during which no consideration is made for time of day or night o r even weather conditions (Ferguson, 2007). Gaines and Miller (2007) explain that the dangers of police work are both physical and mental/psychological. They indicate that according to the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Justice Department policing is one of the most dangerous jobs in the US with 261 of every 1000 officersÃ¢â¬â¢ targets of non-fatal violence annually. Between the year 2003 and 2004, over three hundred police officers were murdered in the line of duty. They further assert that police work, in addition to physical dangers, involves considerable mental stress and pressure. The United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that together with being a surgeon, firefighting, driving a taxi,
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Ensuring Appropriate Search Engine Registration - Essay Example Cybercrime has spread and it cut across geographical borders, creating a new form of illegal activity that undermines the legitimacy and feasibility of applying laws based on boundaries. Law making and law enforcing authorities that are bound in territories are finding cyber crime threatening. It is a new concept and the existing laws are not equipped to handle the situation yet. This scenario has put the nation in a situation, not favourable, regarding its efficiency, sovereignty and autonomy to govern itself without inclusion of other parties. However, already established territorial law making and justice authorities may yet learn to hold back to the self-regulatory wants of cyberspace users who care most profoundly about this new digital trade in information ideas, and services. Separated from common beliefs tied to country jurisdictions, new laws will emerge, in an assortment of online spaces, to handle the wide range of new situations that have no clear equals in the real actua l world. Accordingly, this article seeks to address and analyse the following issues: Firstly, it incisively looks at how cybercrime is being addressed at the international and national levels. Secondly, it revisits the state of the existing regulatory and legislative framework and their quality use in combating this form of international organised crime, taking the European Union The web is fast evolving and is creating new challenges for information retrieval with every twist and turn in the technology ( Nozaki and Tipton 1999). The information archive is growing rapidly and the number of online users interested in using this result is rising at an alarming yet comforting rate. Alarming to developers who make the websites but comforting to policy makers who believe that it is a paradigm shift and that the information age is here for us to realise its benefits. The internet users experience is a major factor in the art of web searches and it indicates that people always use the most popular websites to do their searches. Another viable option to locating information is a human maintained list, this could cover popular topics effectively and is subjective, expensive to maintain and build. It is also marred with slow improvements and cannot cover the range of all esoteric topics. To the aid of the hurdle experience with the human maintained list is the automat ed search engines. They rely on matching keywords and return matches. The search engines make heavy use of the additional structure present in website pages built in hypertext and provide much higher and quality search results. The projection of the future search engine content hold in terms of available indexes is on the billion mark. The number of queries alone is beyond 20 million in a single day for a major search engine and the goal of the developers of search engines is to address the many problems both in quality and scalability. The internet has been a tool of trade and use among corporate organisations operating in this information age. There are about several millions of websites online and others still being uploaded every passing moment. The typical browser at a workstation in an internet cafe, home, office or public
Is the U.S. Seeking to Contain Russia - Research Paper Example Main Russian authorities gave a joint statement and said that both the countries are now looking to start a collaborative venture against the terrorist nuclear states in order to ensure the safety of their nations. President Obama also showed commitment to work for the U.S. Senate ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Both countries are also working for usage of nuclear energy in the positive ways and prolific nuclear usage treaty has been signed and there are many other projects which have been started which were ceased by the former presence of America due to the August 2008 Russia-Georgia conflict (Nuclear Energy Today, 82). Many Defense analysts are of the view that US is seeking to contain Russia and the ballistic missiles in South Korea which are covering the whole DPRK and can hit up to 800 kilometers is a clear sign for that. There has been no use of these missiles in that region other than targeting Russia and China and the long-term communist avenge is taking new turns (Globalresearch, 2013). Military experts are also getting hints from the pro-NATO policies of Russia that the US has ceased the policy to contain Russia because it is no more the war of systems now as the liberal democracy has made its impact and Russians seem to accept this point and are looking forward to the peaceful coexistence. The new threat which is said as political Islam has been regarded by them as the main threat to both US and Russia. (English Pravda, 2013) In a combined meeting and conference with Afghan President in August 2008, Russian President Medvedev said that Russia is looking to start new terms and relationships with Afghanistan because both the countries have been a victim of terrorism in the past and now is the time for the peaceful way ahead.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Future MBA Cartoon Essay Ambiguity: Friend or Foe Often times during our earlier years, we stumble upon Ã¢â¬ËloopholesÃ¢â¬â¢ within our language. We then take these Ã¢â¬ËloopholesÃ¢â¬â¢ and mend them to our advantage. These Ã¢â¬ËloopholesÃ¢â¬â¢ that I am referring to are words that have many different meanings, however actions can also be grouped into this. Much like the cartoon, Ã¢â¬Å"Future MBAÃ¢â¬ illustrated by Mike Shapiro. In this cartoon you see two students sitting at their desks, both with paper and pencil on the desk. The teacher is standing in front of them and one can only be brought to the assumption that these children were either taking a test or doing an assignment that was meant to be finished solo. However, this cartoon depicts that these students did not follow those instructions by giving us the text, Ã¢â¬Å"We werenÃ¢â¬â¢t cheating. We were consulting.Ã¢â¬ With this text we are given that the children are looking for a way out of punishment by re-characterizing their obvious but ambiguous actions by altering what the teachers perception of it was with that of something that is not detestable, although rather questionable. Cheating is the sharing of answers or ideas that one person may have and is given to another. With the idea that there was no cheating or answer exchanging going on but rather discussing possible outcomes, or consulting in this case, these children are trying to pose the idea that they have done no wrong. This happens more often than you would think. Unfortunately, when these do occur it is not always in a less harmful situation such as a classroom setting over a test or assignment. This often happens in large business and even our government. Through the use of euphemisms you take a word that is particularly disliked and exchange it with a word that has more appeal. On the news for example when there are times of war and there are casualties. The word casualties take the place of saying Ã¢â¬Å"four women, seven children, and six men were killedÃ¢â¬â¢. It can be used in this scenario where emotions could get the better of the situation and cause an uproar. However, is this right? Has our language helped us or betrayed us by making it so easy toÃ cleverly deceive our minds from what is really going on? Then again, in situations it can help ease the pain of loosing a loved one, and explaining it to a child. For instance, instead of telling a child that their father was decapitated i n a car crash and is dead, we can tell the child that their father has passed away. In this case it is our ally. It is hard to determine whether something of this magnitude is beneficial or ultimately malicious. I can see both sides of this, but you cannot get rid of one without the other. They are two sides of the same coin. The only thing I can leave with you is that you cannot have the use of one without the other. However, I can tell you that you have to choose how to use this. Personally, I choose to use this for the greater good not to deceive others or try to confuse them about what is really going on. Works Cited Shapiro, Mike. Ã¢â¬Å"Future MBAÃ¢â¬ Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Pearson Education, Inc, 2008.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Piracy Threat in Somalia SGT Figueras, Diego Piracy has steadily been on the rise along the Horn of Africa primarily along the coast of Somalia. In recent years, piracy has gained the attention from the United States (U.S.) and the international community about its consistent and ever increasing threat. A well-known example of Somalias rampant piracy threat occur in April of 2009, when Somalian pirates forcibly captured the shipping vessel Maersk Alabamas skipper, Richard Phillips, as a hostage (Boot, 2009). The situation ended when U.S. Navy Seals, conducted a rescue operation that freed Captain Phillips. The media coverage that followed revealed to the U.S. that piracy is and will be continue to be a source of conflict without U.S. assistance and East African Naval cooperation. Second order of effects The Captain Phillips rescue led to the U.S. and East African nations (EAN) developing anti-piracy procedures. However, even with the new procedures the U.S. and EAN still failed to recognize piracy as a legitimate concern in the region. The lack of action from the U.S. and EAN allowed piracy to flourish. From 2009 through 2011, there was an estimated 850 attacks on military and commercial vessels costing $6.6 -$6.9 billion dollars in damage and ransoms. The Somali piracy threat reached its climax in 2011, where Somali pirates began affecting shipping lanes, causing the cost of goods, such as, (oil, food, technology) to rise worldwide (Mueller, 2013). At the end of 2011, the U.S. and EAN finally recognized the severity of the Somali piracy threat. Third order of effects In 2012, the U.S. Navy began being more active against the threat posed by Somali pirates. The U.S. sent naval ships such as, destroyers and cruises to begin patrolling and responding to ships under duress from Somali pirates. The increased presence and timely reaction by the U.S. Navy, has caused a significant decrease in piracy activity in the region. From 2012 through 2015, there were only estimated 264 attacks from Somali pirates (Fiorelli, 2014). That is a 68% decrease of pirate attacks since the height of Somali piracy from 2009 through 2011. The threat posed by the U.S. Navy to the Somali pirates has been a significant detergent against piracy. Predictive assessment The threat posed from Somali pirates is steadily decreasing each passing year. In order to eliminate the threat posed by Somali pirates, the U.S. Navy will require more assistance and cooperation from EAN. The U.S. Navy will not always be able to defend the international shipping lanes from Somali pirate attacks. In addition, because of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the U.S. populace will not be supportive to another long-term U.S. military commitment. EAN and their naval forces must began taking a more active role and eventually spearhead the anti-piracy effort to effectively eliminate piracy. However, I assess that EAN will not be able to meet the demands require to effectively counter piracy along the Horn of Africa. Because, EAN does not have financial means, logistical support, equipment require nor the trained personnel to effectively sustain long-term anti-piracy operations unlike the U.S. If the U.S. Navy were to cease anti-piracy operations, piracy would reappear, potent ially return to its climax seen in 2011 and once again cause havoc in the international shipping lanes. The Al Shabaab threat to Somalia Al Shabaab is currently East Africas largest and most active terrorist organization. In the past decade, Al Shabaab has successfully gained an area of operations that covers the entire Horn of Africa. In 2014, Somali security forces and the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) began conducting counter insurgency operations against Al Shabaab. However, three years of counterterrorism operations has yielded little results in disrupting Al Shabaab operations. Al Shabaab still controls a vast majority of southern and central Somalia and within the past year, has been becoming more active in Somalia. In January 2016, Al Shabaab conducted a complex attack that resulted in overrunning an AMISOM base near the Kenya-Somalia border. Al Shabaab claims to have killed more than 100 AMISOM Soldiers; however, that number has yet to be confirm even a one year later. In addition, in the past seven months, Al-Shabaab has successfully overran two additional AMISOM bases and plundered equipment, ve hicles and weaponry. The equipment and resources retrieved from AMISOM bases have not only strengthen Al Shabaab military capabilities, but also asserted themselves as a legitimate threat to Somalias sovereignty. Second order of effects Al Shabaabs recent success has increased their confidence to operate openly as a legitimate form of government in southern and central Somalia. However, their inability to act as a legitimate government has significant consequences to the Somali citizens within its territory. Southern and central Somalia suffer from extreme drought, which has cause a famine in the region. International surveys suggest that roughly, 3.6 million Somali citizens suffer from starvation and many more suffer from life threatening medical issues as a result. Al Shabaab government and leadership is not prepared to handle this current crisis let alone provide for the citizens basic needs. To make matters worse, the Al Shabaab government has banned all Western and United Nations humanitarian aid organizations access to its territory. Their Islamic counterparts, the Islamic Relief, the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent are all limited in their capabilities to combat the spread of famine. In addition, are not able to provide the medical relief and food aid desperately required by the Somali citizens. References Boot, M., 2009. Pirates, Then and Now: How Piracy Was Defeated in the Past and Can Be Again. Foreign Affairs Journal. 88. no. 4: 94-107. Besley, T., Fetzer, T. and Mueller, H. 2013. The welfare cost of lawlessness: Evidence from Somali piracy. VOX: Research-based policy analysis and commentary from leading economists. Retrieved 04 February 2017 (http://www.voxeu.org/article/welfare-cost-lawlessness-evidence-somali-piracy). Fiorelli, M., 2014. Piracy in Africa: The case of the Gulf of Guinea. Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center. No. 37: 1-16.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
An Age of Reason Ã¢â¬Å"Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.Ã¢â¬ This brief quotation was spoken by the famous writer and philosopher Voltaire; I believe it vaguely points out that some people are full of absurd ideas, and for others to follow such nonsense is foolish. The quote is just a taste of VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s wisdom and knowledge of the world, during the Age of Reason. The Age of Reason or The Enlightenment is defined as a change in not just a way of thinking, but an establishment of values and rational actions. Ã¢â¬Å"Based on Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"What is Enlightenment?Ã¢â¬ it is the freedom to use one's own intelligence (Strathern 63). Enlightenment thinkers believed in the powers of humankind and saw themselves as part of a revolutionary development in history that would replace superstition and tired rituals and corrupt traditions with reason and productive energy. However, intelligence and freedom two words that express what I bel ieve to be the main ideas of the Enlightenment and such ideas were recognized through two significant people Voltaire and Jefferson. To begin, the first figure of the Enlightenment would be Francois Marie Arouet aka: Voltaire. He was born in Paris, and he was known as one of the greatest writers and philosophers for the French. However, the French during his time period did not wish it so, because Voltaire had a passion for philosophical rationalism and this passion was fueled after he was exiled from France and went to England. Previous the exile, he was also locked in the Bastille for insulting a French noble-man. Voltaire was a man of sharp wit and high valued opinions, because of this trait he often got into trouble. However, it was because of this trait and a p... ... was a complex movement, that is recognized in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world perspective as the source of our modern secular worldview; form our ideas of religious toleration, individual liberty and free speech to the practices of our representative government, and unregulated profitable development. Works Cited 1. Brians, Paul. The Enlightenment. Washington State University, 2000. Web. 2. Coates, Robert Eyler. Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government. Jefferson Parish, LA: University of Virginia, 1995. Web. 3. Gray, John. Voltaire: The Great Philosophers. New York: Routledge, 1999. Print. 4. Strathern, Paul. Kant in 90 Minutes. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996. Print. 5. Staloff, Darren. Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The politics of the Enlightenment And The American Founding. New York: Hill and Wang. 2005. Print.
ShakespeareÃ ´s play 'Macbeth' is set in the heart of Scotland. The king at the time is king Duncun, a noble and honest king. He has two sons and many Thanes and noble men, one being Macbeth. Macbeth has fought his way up the ranks of the army to become one of DuncunÃ ´s most trusted Lords, but an encounter with three witches puts wickedness into the heart of an otherwise noble and loyal man. In act 1, scene 1, a scene of three witches confronts us. This alone would have created mystery and fright to the audience, setting the scene of the play to come. 'Macbeth' was written in a period when there was a high interest in witchcraft and the supernatural. People were confused and scared by the supernatural, so the sight of three witches would have told the audience that the play would be full of evil and lies. This scene is a short opening to the play. It is long enough to awaken curiosity, but not to satisfy it. The mood of the play is set, although the action and the introduction of the leading characters do not start until the next scene. In act 1, scene 2, we learn about the tough battle which Macbeth and Banquo have fought, and win for the victory for Scotland. Duncun rewards Macbeth for his courage by giving him the title 'thane of CawdorÃ ´, "with his former title greet Macbeth." Let us not forget that a 'most disloyal traitor' first owned this title. This scene tells us that Macbeth is thought of as a brave and valiant man because he has killed so many people and won the battle almost single-handedly. The language used is quite horrific and the deaths of MacbethÃâÃ ´s victims are explained in all their gory detail. This ... ...cbeth drugs the guards and takes their daggers. She then lays them ready for Macbeth. She would have murdered Duncan herself if he had not resembled her father. Macbeth returns having murdered Duncan. ShakespeareÃ ´s use of language and structure manages to create tension right up to the murder of King Duncan. He manages to gradually build it up and then release it a little, and then increase it until finally the act of regicide takes place. His use of dramatic irony, the supernatural and indecision all combine to keep the audience on the edge of their seats throughout these scenes. His use of the right language in the right places helps the characters and the play to become really believable. Throughout the play, the supernatural plays a major role. A wise choice by Shakespeare at the time and it still works today. Use of Tension in William Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay -- William Shake ShakespeareÃ ´s play 'Macbeth' is set in the heart of Scotland. The king at the time is king Duncun, a noble and honest king. He has two sons and many Thanes and noble men, one being Macbeth. Macbeth has fought his way up the ranks of the army to become one of DuncunÃ ´s most trusted Lords, but an encounter with three witches puts wickedness into the heart of an otherwise noble and loyal man. In act 1, scene 1, a scene of three witches confronts us. This alone would have created mystery and fright to the audience, setting the scene of the play to come. 'Macbeth' was written in a period when there was a high interest in witchcraft and the supernatural. People were confused and scared by the supernatural, so the sight of three witches would have told the audience that the play would be full of evil and lies. This scene is a short opening to the play. It is long enough to awaken curiosity, but not to satisfy it. The mood of the play is set, although the action and the introduction of the leading characters do not start until the next scene. In act 1, scene 2, we learn about the tough battle which Macbeth and Banquo have fought, and win for the victory for Scotland. Duncun rewards Macbeth for his courage by giving him the title 'thane of CawdorÃ ´, "with his former title greet Macbeth." Let us not forget that a 'most disloyal traitor' first owned this title. This scene tells us that Macbeth is thought of as a brave and valiant man because he has killed so many people and won the battle almost single-handedly. The language used is quite horrific and the deaths of MacbethÃâÃ ´s victims are explained in all their gory detail. This ... ...cbeth drugs the guards and takes their daggers. She then lays them ready for Macbeth. She would have murdered Duncan herself if he had not resembled her father. Macbeth returns having murdered Duncan. ShakespeareÃ ´s use of language and structure manages to create tension right up to the murder of King Duncan. He manages to gradually build it up and then release it a little, and then increase it until finally the act of regicide takes place. His use of dramatic irony, the supernatural and indecision all combine to keep the audience on the edge of their seats throughout these scenes. His use of the right language in the right places helps the characters and the play to become really believable. Throughout the play, the supernatural plays a major role. A wise choice by Shakespeare at the time and it still works today.
Friday, July 19, 2019
STARS The magnitude scale was invented by an ancient Greek astronomer named Hipparchus in about 150 BC He ranked the stars he could see in terms of their brightness, with 1 representing the brightest down to 6 representing the faintest. Modern astronomy has extended this system to stars brighter than Hipparchus' 1st magnitude stars and ones much, much fainter than 6. As it turns out, the eye senses brightness logarithmically, so each increase in 5 magnitudes corresponds to a decrease in brightness by a factor 100. The absolute magnitude is the magnitude the stars would have if viewed from a distance of 10 parsecs or some 32.6 light years. Obviously, Deneb is intrinsically very bright to make this list from its greater distance. Rigel, of nearly the same absolute magnitude, but closer, stands even higher in the list. Note that most of these distances are really nearby, on a cosmic scale, and that they are generally uncertain by at least 20%. All stars are variable to some extent; those which are visibly variable are marked with a "v". What are apparent and absolute magnitudes? Apparent is how bright the appear to us in the sky. The scale is somewhat arbitrary, as explained above, but a magnitude difference of 5 has been set to exactly a factor of 100 in intensity. Absolute magnitudes are how bright a star would appear from some standard distance, arbitrarily set as 10 parsecs or about 32.6 light years. Stars can be as bright as absolute magnitude -8 and as faint as absolute magnitude +16 or fainter. There are thus (a very few) stars more than 100 times brighter than Sirius, while hardly any are known fainter than Wolf 356. Star, large celestial body composed of gravitationally contained hot gases emitting electromagnetic radiation, especially light, as a result of nuclear reactions inside the star. The sun is a star. With the sole exception of the sun, the stars appear to be fixed, maintaining the same pattern in the skies year after year. In fact the stars are in rapid motion, but their distances are so great that their relative changes in position become apparent only over the centuries. The number of stars visible to the naked eye from earth has been estimated to total 8000, of which 4000 are visible from the northern hemisphere and 4000 from the southern hemisphere. At any one time in either hemisphere, only about 2000 stars are visible.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Introduction Paul Muller, a Swiss chemist and Nobel Prize winner was the one who discovered the DDT which was found to be very effective as a pesticide. In the 40s it was used in the agriculture sector to help kill crop-eating insects. From 1942 onwards it started being commercialized with big companies such as the Montrose Chemical Corporation at the frontline of this pioneering product. At first, the product proved to be quite a sensation drastically reducing the amount of malaria resulting in saving many lives. It also had a huge impact in agriculture with its effective control on pests. Later on there were reports of DDT being harmful to the environment, people and animals. In fact, there was a book that was published by Rachel Carson entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Silent SpringÃ¢â¬ that outlined the dangers of the DDT. A year after the book was published, President John F Kennedy ordered a committee to investigate the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s veracity and it was found to be accurate and that persistent toxic pesti cides should be phased out as soon as possible. What followed was DDT being banned from the public by government decree after conclusive research of how dangerous it is to the environment. The product was however still sold to other countries outside of the US for some time before some of the countries themselves decided to ban it. The purpose of this report is to explore ethical issues and philosophies brought forth by some of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s ethicists and philosophers in an effort to advocate for the ban of DDT. Violation of Ethical Standards in manufacturing and selling DDT Any manufacturing business should have a code of ethics that should me more than just a set of rules set for its employees. It should go beyond the organization and be a set of rules that protects all its stakeholders and most importantly they must be enforceable. The Montrose Chemical Corporation did violate some of the ethical standards in the manufacturing and selling of DDT to the public as the case may suggest. It is evident in the case that the DDT has brought about many problems such as toxicity to some animals, cancer and spoilage of breast milk. Therefore, the company can be held responsible for the damage this has caused because they should have worked out the dangers and have predicted the risks involved for everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢ s sake. According to Environmental Protection Agency, the Montrose Chemical Corp used heavy amounts of chlorobenzene as a raw material for making DDTÃ and this substance is in its innate form is non-aqueous meaning it remained in the ground and mixed with the other raw materials that resulted in making the groundwater in the area contaminated. Consequently, the surface soils around that area were found to be contaminated with DDT residues. This is something that the company should have considered and anticipated. Also, the company did not demonstrate in any way health concerns by warning people about the dangers of usage even after the publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. Human life as well as animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ should be valued and the manufacturing of DDT resulted in damages as serious as cancer based on some reports. Things Montrose Chemical Corporation should have done differently As part of their social responsibility, instead of rushing into getting as much DDT out for sale as quick as possible, the company should have paused and conducted enough preliminary research to really outline the potential dangers of this substance in the environment and also find alternative ways of fixing those problems without damaging the environment. Perhaps the company should have also provided training and education on usage so that consumers can take the right precautions when using for their benefit and for the benefit of the environment. Even after the risks started being talked about like in the book published by Rachel Carson, Montrose Chemical Corporation showed carelessness and no effort in trying to mitigate the problems caused by the result of their businessÃ¢â¬â¢ existence. They could have at least provided financial aid for the damage caused by this product and to protect life and environment from the effects. That would have shown some sense accountability. For example they could have helped develop fish farms around the area to help with the population and maintain the ecosystem. Effective Corporate Social Responsibility is a fundamental ethical code and its initiatives should look at issues that affect its stakeholders in the long run. So perhaps the company should have revisited their CSR objectives to really improve their planning on manufacturing and selling. The Stakeholder theory coined by Edward Freeman and others argue that instead of starting a business and looking out into the world to see what ethical codes they need to be obligated to, they can begin in the world itself; they list out individuals and groups that will be affected by their operation and recognizes their right to participate in directing it. Also, the company could have been more transparent in their manufacturing operations. ThisÃ might have prompted other researchers out there to point out DDTs disadvantages much sooner and do something about it. It had to take the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decree to ban it in order for them to stop their activities and if that was not there they would have presumably gone on with their business. Environmental Protection AgencyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethicality Even though DDT was not banned in other countries, it was still very unethical for the Montrose Chemical Company to go on selling this product to them. The Righteous moralist philosophy holds that multinational home standards are the right ones for companies to abide by in foreign countries. Ethical issues arise when environmental regulations in host nations are far much inferior to the ones in the home nation. At that point, all the dangerous effects of this product were proven and known yet they still carried on selling to people across the world. The reason it was banned in America was because of the hazardous effects it had overtime affecting people, animal life and the environment as a whole. With this information conclusive and very well documented, the company should have ceased manufacture and selling of this product not just in America but to all the other countries that were getting this product. Instead they knowingly continued manufacturing and selling, disregarding compl etely the dangers that other people are going to face. It is also important to mention that even if the company did not know about the studies that revealed all the effects of DDT, they had a duty to be aware of it to avoid the carelessness that they ended up showing resulting in the harming of people, animals and the environment. They cannot simply ignore the dangers the people, animals and the environment are being put in even if it is beyond their borders. The Environmental Protection Agency had no choice but to ban the whole operation because the DDT had been proven to having caused damage to the environment and harm people and animals as well. Even though this probably meant many people losing their jobs, the ultimate damage that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operation would have brought about would have been far more overwhelming. If they hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t done that, naturally the company, being a business might have gone on with the selling of DDT and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a possibility that is not worth the risk. After all, at that point, they had not shown any signs of stopping anyway because in the ten years between the Silent Spring publication by RachelÃ Carson and when the EPA officially banned the use of DDT, business continued as usual in other countries continents such as Africa, Asia and Europe. Also, according to the EPA official website, the quick success of DDT as a pesticide and broad use in the United States and other countries resulted in many of the insect pest species mutating and developing a resistance to DDT and so finding new ways of dealing with the problems would be whatÃ¢â¬â¢s next. In a nutshell, the EPA would have to be answerable to the damage caused in the environment and so this was the right step. MullerÃ¢â¬â¢s award discussion MullerÃ¢â¬â¢s award for his work on DDT should not be taken away from him because first and foremost, Muller had demonstrated a high level of understanding in chemistry and he did it in an honest way. For that alone he deserved the award because it is something remarkable in the field of Chemistry. In fact, his product helped solve many problems in Agriculture and even health care and so this is only more of a reason to celebrate his great work. He cannot be held responsible in any way for the misfortune DDT has brought about. His intention was good in that he was trying to find a way to protect human life from insect borne diseases. Many other advantages followed such as pest control in the agriculture sector. It was only when this product started being heavily commercialized did the problems of land pollution, toxicity and cancer came about. How the discovery was used cannot be blamed on Muller. Prior to DDTs commercialization, Mueller did express his concerns about the inherent nature of DDT ; of how stable it is, meaning it would not be able to decompose harmlessly in the environment so from that, people should have been more careful at how they manufacture and sell DDT. Also, Muller did not take part in its commercialization that led to the environmentÃ¢â¬â¢s deterioration. Therefore taking MullerÃ¢â¬â¢s award away from him would only be unfair and outrageous. Saving lives versus environment risk The ability to save lives is not worth the risk the environment has to be put in. From the case, it may seem that DDT is worth it as it helped control pests and saved a lot of lives but this is only a short termed and a smaller issue compared to the entire ecosystem in the long run. The utilitarian and the Kantian philosophy brought forth by David Hume and Jeremy Bentham argues that the moral worth of actions or practices is determined by theÃ consequences. If the effects are desirable then the actions are worth it. The continual disposal of DDT cumulatively resulted in cases such as cancer, contamination of soil and water; toxicity in milk and egg shells in birds not properly formed for birth. This in the long run disturbs the ecosystem which is essential for all life forms. The cancer only means more deaths and toxicity in milk could as well have the same result, poor health at the very least. Preserving the environment provides a more sustainable future for life and its maintenance. Conclusion In spite of all the credits that DDT probably deserves, the damage that the environment as a whole cumulatively ends up having makes further operations ethically unacceptable and not worth it. As a company with such activities, they have the responsibility to look after its stakeholders and the environment at large. Montrose Chemical Corporation was very careless about how they handled their manufacturing and selling of DDT and it ended up costing damage not only in the US but even in countries outside of the US. More research should have been done to anticipate this and more acts of accountability should have been shown to help mitigate the situation. By placing emphasis on ethical issues at every point in their manufacturing process, the company will ultimately do more good in the long run. A theory that was once proposed by Thomas Hobbes called the theory of social atomism states that individuals always act for their own selfish interests, and in the pristine state of man, there a re no rights. This kind of attitude must be suppressed if there has to be any progress in protecting interests of stakeholders.
The Up spring anaerobic goo Blanket mapping was fixed by Lettinga in the Netherland during the early 1980s, as a comparatively simple sewer water preventive system, in which no moving part argon present ( Lettinga et al, 1980 ) . It was fore intimately proposed for the interpolation of racy tear industrial xerox, and hornswogglely research for its application too at bottom domestic sewerage interference was initiated. The UASB nuclear nuclear nuclear nuclear nuclear nuclear nuclear reactor is now going a popular intervention shape for industrial body of water, because of its potency in handling mettlesome strength stunned diminishing. From the Seghezzo et Al. ( 1998 ) , the device characteristics which make UASB reactor to be popular risque force. Avail cap superpower of granular or woolly easy lay, leting it to perform soft chemic substance substance O demand ( ingest ) remotion efficiencies without the demand of support pinch. Further to a greater ex hug drugt than, the infixed turbulency ca utilise by caused by lifting flub bubbles which buoy the soap, provides efficient outgoing and bio pack contact.Simplicity. The construction and ope balancen of the reactor is comparatively simple.Flexibility. anaerobic intervention keister easy be apply on either a really big or a really little gradatory knock back. Besides, overdue to the granulation/blanketing in a UASB reactor, the solids and hydraulic donjoning arrange net be manipu new-maded self-reliantly and efficaciously, in that respectfore drop outing the design to be base upon the degradative message of the biomass, turn out in the decrease of intervention times from yearss to hours. ( hickey et al. 1991 ) hapless vim ingestion. Equally supercharge as no warming of the in ope enjoining is needed to make the on the outturn line temperature and all operations operations quarter be done by gravitation, the aptitude ingestion of the reactor is a bout negligible. Furthermore, energy is produced during the aff picnic in the signifier of methane. menial goo turnout. The droppings production is low, when comp ard to anaerobic modes, due to the slow ontogenesis localize of anaerobic bacteriums. The easy lay is sober stabilise for the concluding disposal and has good dewatering features. It hind end be preserved for long periods of ramble on without a important decrease of activities, leting its con plazaption a inoculant for the starting time-up of new reactors. utter foods and chemical demand. Particularly in the type of sewerage, an match and stable pH back end be maintained without the add-on of chemicals.The UASB has been successfully used in the recent yesteryear to handle a assortment of industrial any bit good as domestic go down onwater. The applications for this engineering be pass out outing to complicate intervention of chemical and petrochemical industry wastewater, fabric industry effluent, landfill l for distributively one(prenominal)ates, every bit good as applications say at spiritual rebirths in the sulfur unit of ammunition and remotions of metals. Furthermore, in warm climes the UASB construct is withal suited for intervention of domestic effluent.1.2 task STATEMENTThe design and optimisation of Up work anaerobiotic droppings Blanket ( UASB ) reactor units required lore of bio dynamicss, variety, chemical reply and else. However, the hydrokineticss wi thin a UASB reactor is a critical vastness to the semi humanity showing of the system. Current effluent intervention design methods make set forth of the mixed bag conditions and it is hence hard to presage how vessel design for illustration, place of scatters, baffles or dimensions which could impact hydrokineticss, thusly overall human beings presentment. Besides, the applications of the experimental techniques to depend into shine Fieldss and mass absorption Fieldss argon highly costly a nd alike extremely limited in application. Thus, an appropriate means which is design of baffles had been chosen and investigated the influences of hydrokineticss and creation presentations of UASB reactor in this mickle.computational Fluid dynamics ( CFD ) provides a mathematical method for anticipation of the consequence that effluent intervention procedure design features on the hydrokineticss from a cardinal degree. Progresss in CFD arrive at provided an efficient, economical and cartridge do salvaging tool to look into the hydrokineticss and response transition happening in a UASB reactor.AimThe thesis has both headman aims fore about is to carry on the public presentation survey of the designed Upflow Anaerobic easy lay Blanket ( UASB ) reactor which toilette be applied to full graduated table systems. The Computational Fluid kinetics ( CFD ) sup statusal forecast presented here has the ability to copy multiple symbolises ( in this exercise the max mixtu re with pee and commit ) . Besides, the CFD a priori bank bill was developed and applied for the building of existent scale hypothetic explanation.The 2nd aim is to analyze the personal effects of baffles to the hydrokineticss for illustration the eloquent commixture form, flow field, matching and of the 3 fix ups ( fluidity, solid and air ) of waste pee intervention procedure. In this survey, the experiment would carry on with blurry UASB reactor and the unlike is un-baffled UASB reactor to further analyze the influences to the hydrokineticss and overall public presentations.Chapter 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 handling PRINCIPLE OF UPFLOW anaerobiotic SLUDGE carry ( UASB ) ReactorThe Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket ( UASB ) procedure consists of an upflow of effluent through a wooden-headed oozing roll in the hay with high microbic activity. In the reactor, the solids profile varies from really sober and farinaceous atoms with good settee ability near to the undersid e ( slime shaft ) , to more spread and light ooze atoms near to the back ( sludge grok ) .The UASB reactor sight be shared out into four contributions sludge tush, sludge cover, gas-solid-liquid separator and secondary coil compartment above the centrifuge. The sludge get by is situated at the underside of the reactor and consists of a dense sludge with exceptional subsiding features it is hence kept in the reactor. Above the sludge behind is the sludge cover, with solid showing lower submersion and settling uppers. The sludge cover consists of sludge atoms in a mixture with the biogas make, and is therefore held in suspension. It is in these two compartments, the sludge bed and the sludge cover, that the entree effluent is biologically degraded ( Chernicharo, 2007 ) .BiogasSludge atomGas bubblesBaffleSludge BlanketSludge bedDigestion CompartmentSettling Compartment3-phase centrifuge traffic pattern 1 UASB reactorThe effluent flows upward in a vertical reactor through a cover of granulated sludge and bacteriums in the sludge interrupt down constituent(a) matter by anaerobiotic digestion, transforming it into biogas. The biogas-production and the incoming flow cause natural turbulency in the reactor, which provides a good wastewater-biomass contact in the UASB reactor system ( Heertjes al. , 1978 ) . The upflow government and the motion of the gas bubbles allow unify without auto-mechanic aid. To head off sludge washout, the 3 correspond centrifuge is installed in the upper luck of the reactor. The gas formed is sepa treadd from the liquid, which allow sludge guardianship and return. Above the centrifuge, a gas free zone is formed which is settling compartment, for puzzle of solid atoms, and most of the atoms that acquire entered this zone entrust influence back to the reactor, whereas the smallest atoms go out be rinse out with the wastewater ( Angelidaki et al, 2007 ) . Baffles at the top of the reactor allow gases to get international and forestall the escape of the sludge cover.The 3-phase centrifuge, or the gas-liquid-solid ( GLS ) centrifuge, enables a high keeping capacity of big sums of high-activity biomass in the reactor. Through this characteristic, a solids abode clip ( SRT ) a great deal high than the hydraulic keeping clip female genitals be achieved. Consequently, the care of high SRT is the major point of involvement in concrete application of UASB procedure. This ability to develop and keep high-activity sludge within the reactor is the most of import panorama of the UASB construct ( Chernicharo, 2007 ) .2.2 ANAEROBIC PROCESS IN THE UASB REACTORIn UASB reactor, anaerobiotic micro-organisms in the sludge cover digest the stallion pollutants in the entrance effluent. Anaerobic digestion produces biogas ( a mixture of methane CH4, C dioxide CO2 and hints gases ) . after(prenominal) some hebdomads of ripening, farinaceous sludge signifiers and this is the pass outstanding feature of UASB reactor named phenomenon of granulation. The establishment of granules is really of import because bacteriums in granules are more efficient for biogas production than the flocculated biomass ( Wendland2008 ) .The anaerobiotic farinaceous sludge consists of microbic communities, with 1000000s of micro-organisms per gm biomass. Normally the granules are grouped dumbly together and endorse first-class settling ability. The size wise to each one granule ranges from 0.1to 5mm. The micro bodily structure of each granule go away be dictated by the substratum features of the incoming, for simple subst range merely methanogens are needed for complete admixture. For complex subst numbers, by and large the antithetical bacterial universe of discourses will group together selectively in beds on top of each separate ( Tiwari et al, 2006 ) .The farinaceous sludge enables the keeping of a really high depend of micro-organisms in the reactor, which means that a rapid debasemen t of thorough affair digest be obtained. In bend, a big mickle of waste butt be treat within a volume that takes up merely little sum of infinites. Besides, anaerobic sludge has or commences good deposit belongingss, and is automatically assorted by the upflow forces of the entrance effluent and gas bubbles being generated in the reactor. For that ground, mechanical commixture can be omitted from an UASB reactor and therefore cut drink capital and care costs. This commixture too encourages the formation of sludge granules.2.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF UASB REACTORThe UASB reactor can be designed as handbill or rectangular. It is necessary to read proper background knowledge of operating parametric quantities for design, much(prenominal) as organic committal rate ( OLR ) , SLR, superficial liquid upflow revive and hydraulic keeping clip ( hormone flipment therapy ) .By and large, there are two ways to plan UASB reactor which are based on hormone-replacement therapy or O LR. In the instance of low strength effluent, much(prenominal) as sewerage, it is the HRT or else than the OLR that determines the design method of UASB reactor. In position of the instead low organic tonss that can be applied in the intervention of dilute effluent, and the lower blending ensuing from the gas production, it is evident that more recess points are needed, in comparing with the same reactor under high organic impression rates condition ( Lettinga et al, 1983 ) .2.3.1 Low strength effluent Hydraulic safekeeping TimeFor low strength effluent with trounce input less than 5000mg/l, the design method should be compute based on the HRT which can be reserveled by volumetric hydraulic encumbrance. It is note that HRT means the step of the mean continuance of clip that a soluble composite hang ins in the reactor. Anaerobic digestion depends on the biological activity of comparatively belatedly reproducing methanogenic bacteriums. These bacteriums must be inclined fitting clip to reproduce, so that they can replace cells loss with the wastewater sludge, and adjust their population size to follow fluctuations in organic preventative. If the rate of bacteriums loss from the digester with the wastewater slurry exceeds the ontogeny rate of the bacteriums, the bacterial population in the digester will be washed out of the system. This washout is avoided by keeping a sufficient HRT for guaranting that the bacterial cells remain in optimum concentration within the digester. The longer a substrate is kept under proper reaction conditions the more complete its debasement will go. However, the reaction rate will diminish with change magnitude HRT. Thus, the sum of effluent applied periodic to the reactor, per unit volume, is termed the volumetric hydraulic burden( 2.1 )whereVHL = volumetric hydraulic burden ( d-1 )Q = flow rate ( m3/d )V = entire volume of reactor ( M3 )The hydraulic keeping clip ( HRT ) , given in yearss, is expressed as( 2.2 )which gives that,( 2.3 )For tropical climes and semitropical climes experimental consequences showed that a HRT of hexad hours was sufficient to accomplish satisfactory consequences in a one compartment UASB. In table 1 nowadayss some guidelines for the constitution of HRTs in design of UASB reactors handling domestic effluent. hold over 1 Applicable Hydraulic detainment clip for natural domestic effluent in a 4m tall UASB reactor at assorted temperature ranges. ( adopted from Lettinga et Al, 1991 )Sewage temperature ( AC )HRT ( H )casual AverageMinimum ( during 4 to 6 H )16-19& gt 10 14& gt 7 920-26& gt 6 9& gt 4 6& gt 26& gt 6& gt 42.3.2 High strength effluent Organic burden rateIn the rag input between 5000 15000mg/l or more, the design method should be calculated based on OLR. bacteria have a maximal production rate depending on the type of reactor and substrate. The OLR is one of parametric quantities used to suck up this production rate. Bacteria and micro-o rganisms have their specialized growing rate that will accomplish a maximal production rate when they degrade substrate. Therefore, distinct OLR give different impacts to the reaction rate and efficacy every bit good. By definition, the volumetric OLR is the sum of organic affair applied effortless to the reactor, per volume unit( 2.4 )whereOLR = organic burden rate ( kg fool away/m3d )S = incoming substrate concentration ( kg loosen/m3 ) beat up intervention efficiency can be calculated by( 2.5 )For COD concentration in the scope of 2 to 5g/L. the public presentation of the reactor depends on the hydraulic burden rate and is independent of inflowing substrate concentration. For COD concentration greater than 5g/L it is recommended to thin the effluent to about 2g COD/L during essential start up of the reactor. erst magic spell the primary start up of the reactor is over with the granulation of sludge, lading rates can be increased in stairss to convey the existent COD conce ntration of the effluent. The lading above 1-2kg COD/m3d is natural for proper operation of the reactor.2.3.3 Upflow speed, reactor acme and volumeHigher upflow speed, favours better selective procedure for the sludge and better commixture in the reactor. However, as sound high upflow speed may do the incolumn acquire washed out during start up. Besides, during normal operation granules may acquire disintegrated and the ensuing fragments can easy be washed out from the reactor. Therefore, design the optimal liquid upflow speeds ensuing favourable for granule growing and good fluid blending with the touch off sludge. The upflow speed, V, is calculated from the relation between the inflowing flow rate and the cross discussion section of the reactor( 2.6 )whereV = upflow speed ( k / H )A = cross sectioned country of the reactor ( M2 )Alternatively, the upflow speed can besides be calculated from the ratio of the top and the hydraulic keeping clip( 2.7 )whereH = elevation of t he reactor ( m )The pick of appropriate tallness of the reactor depends on the needed public presentation and economic considerations. Another of import facet is the place of the underside of the reactor, comparative to prime degree. Construction costs can be bring down if the reactor underside can be placed at such degree that no pumping system of influent is required. The reactor tallness besides has grandness for the efficiency of the organic affair remotion, as the upflow speed must non transcend the butt on where the sludge washed out. The upflow speed, and reactor tallness are closely cogitate in equation 2.7.Based on the high suited cheer of OLR, for given COD concentration, the volume of the reactor required is to be worked out as( 2.8 )The volume of sludge should be less than 50 % of the reactor volume, worked out based on OLR, to avoid overloading of the reactor with regard to SLR. If the volume is non bunk intoing the demands, the OLR can be reduced to increase th e volume.2.3.4 Influent Distribution SystemIt is of critical grandness that the influent substrate is equally distributed in the lower portion of the reactor. Otherwise a close contact between biomass and substrate can non be obtained. The gas production will ever lend well to the commixture of the sludge bed, and hence the commixture within the digestion compartment will typically be hindered when handling effluent. Poor blending can take to the creative activity of homophobic tracts through the sludge bed. For illustration, hydraulic short circuits, which in the long term will give a shorter sludge bed height and the formation of dead zones in the sludge bed ( Lettinga et al, 1991 ) . To avoid this job, the influent should be introduced at several points from the reactor underside. A particular influent dissemination system can vouch equal distribution over the full reactor surface country. Therefore, the influent so passes a dense and expanded anaerobiotic farinaceous biomass b ed and the biological intervention expeditiously.The descriptor of distribution pipes needed depend on the country of the cross subdivision of the reactor. Chernicharo ( 2007 ) suggests that Equation 2.9 be used to find the figure distribution pipes( 2.9 )whereNx = figure of distribution tubingsA = country of cross subdivision of the reactor ( M2 )Ax = influence country of each distributer ( M2 )2.4 Fluid Mixing In UASB ReactorThe flow form in the UASB reactor is one of the most of import factors to be considered for design to ease an efficient intervention. The efficiency of all bioprocesses is closely connected with commixture and conveyance phenomena, as an even blending form will supply good conditions for substrate conveyance to and from the microbic sums. Therefore, the transition of organic affair in the UASB reactor is governed by non merely the public presentation of the microbiological procedures, but besides the hydrokineticss of the reactor. However, the behaviour of th e UASB procedure is non to the full understood.The commixture inside a UASB reactor is related to several parametric quantities, such as the type of influent-feeding device, upflow speed and biogas production rate, and different surveies have used different theoretical government notes to suck up its hydrokineticss. Heertjes et Al ( 1978 ) assumed the flow to be totally assorted within the sludge bed and sludge cover, although the sludge bed could besides hold dead infinites and returning flows.The more accurate theoretical accounts of the UASB fluid mechanicss where late highlighted by both Zeng et Al ( 2005 ) and Lou et Al ( 2006 ) , saying that the bing mathematical theoretical accounts of anaerobiotic digestion in UASB reactors mostly assume type commixture, therefore pretermiting concentration gradients. To make a more right theoretical account of the reactor fluid mechanicss, Zeng et Al ( 2005 ) instead used a two-compartment theoretical account, with the sludge bed and l iquid zones described by a two-zone axially spread system. The survey showed that in a UASB reactor there is a strong dependance of the spread coefficient on both reactor tallness and upflow speed.2.4.1 Computational Fluid dynamics ( CFD )With opthalmic aspect of general intent codifications, such as placid, CFX and others, Computational Fluid kinetics ( CFD ) has become progressively popular in environmental engineering. CFD codifications besides can be used to visualise elaborate flow phenomena, a important benefit for the measuring of parametric quantities such as force per unit area, speed, phases volume segment and else. The work mentioned above chiefly concentrated on using CFD codifications to obtain UASB reactor hydrokineticss informations, therefore doing good suggestions for UASB reactor design and optimisation. The theoretical accounts used were simplified two stages or individual stage systems. Related UASB reactor trick based on gas-liquid-solid trinity stage th eoretical accounts and flow procedure related reaction dynamicss theoretical accounts wide studied. For the first clip, the focal point lies on set uping hydrodynamics-reaction dynamicss coupled theoretical account of a gas-liquid-solid three stage waste H2O intervention system utilizing CFD cloak followed by experimental confirmation in this paper.Although UASB reactor has been used in environmental engineering applications for many old ages, polished research has been published on UASB reactor mold. The chief aims of this survey are to develop an easy to utilize of CFD theoretical account of the important procedure parametric quantities, based on cardinal scientific correct and to formalize the theoretical account by utilisation of experiment consequences. Due to non much researching on baffled UASB reactor, our conjugate theoretical account was applied and validated on a waste H2O intervention procedure and look into the overall public presentation. Once developed and assesse d with the all-out canvass consequences, the theoretical account can be diligent to analyse the consequence of waste H2O quality features on the public presentation of the procedure. It is expected that this survey will turn out utile in using UASB engineering.Chapter 3Methodology3.1 Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) frameworkThe commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) codification ANYSYS FLUENT was used to practise the two and three dimensional flow field before building of the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket ( UAB ) reactor. A abstract theoretical account was developed by the sheaf and this proposed CFD theoretical account is collected of the nucleus hydrokineticss theoretical account for the liquid and gaseous stages, and coupled with the sludge. CFD simulation helps to depict flow of the liquid and gas constituents of the polyphase flow. The uninterrupted stage is the effluent and sludge and the spread stage is air or biogas. The premises made for the spread st age areThe bubbles are globularThe bubbles have abiding diamNo hits, coalition or break-up of bubblesThe gas stage animal(prenominal) belongingss for illustration denseness and viscousness were air belongingss. For the liquid stage, the denseness was considered to be that of H2O, while in footings of viscousness.3.1.1 Eulerian-Eulerian theoretical accountThis theoretical account is help to work out a set of impulse and continuity equations for each stage. Applications of Eulerian multiphase theoretical account include bubble column, risers, atom suspensions and fluidized beds ( Saurel and Abgrall 1999 Mathisesen et al.2000 ) . In this survey, two dimensional Eulerian-Eulerian three stage fluid theoretical account has been employed to depict the flow behaviour of each stage, so the biogas, effluent and sludge granules are wholly treated as different continua, with effluent as a primary stage, and the gas and sludge granules as the secondary stages. This theoretical account was chosen because of the high proportion of gas bubbles and granules particulates ( Bin et al. 2003 ) .3.1.2 Species enchant and Reaction theoretical accountCFD codifications can pattern the commixture and conveyance of chemical species by work outing preservation equations depict convection, diffusion and reaction beginnings for each constituent species ( Sivertsen and Djilali, 2005 ) . Multiple coincident chemical reactions can be modeled, with reactions happening in the majority stage ( volumetric reaction ) , on inside wall of the reactor or atom surfaces.3.1.3 Numeric etymonThe complete geometry of the UASB reactor have analyzed by a computational planate mesh. For efficiency usage of computational clip, simulation of the UASB reactor exploits the radial geometry of the reactor in a planar surface. The meshes were created in the ANYSYS Fluent as a preprocessor plan and exported into the ANYSYS Fluent CFD flow patterning package bundle to work out the continuity and impulse equations.In Eulerian-Eulerian theoretical account, each stage was assumed incompressible. The effluent was regarded as assorted liquid, ab initio incorporating pure H2O and some chemical wastes and the denseness was immovable by utilizing a volume burden mixing jurisprudence. The sludge granules took up approximately 35 % of the volume in the bed part and were considered to be 1mm diameter spherical solid granules. The biogas was assumed to hold a denseness by the incompressible-ideal-gas jurisprudence ( FLUENT 6.0 Users usher, 2001 ) . The gas stage volume share was related to gas production in reaction and the gas bubbles were assumed to hold a diameter of 0.1 millimeter.The simulation consequences transfer small with grid denseness so truncation mistakes in the numerical simulation can be neglected. An analysis independent of the grid was performed to extinguish mistakes in simulation truth, numerical stableness, convergence and computational stairss related to grid saltin ess ( Ait-Ali-Yahia et al.2002 Lu et al,2009 ) .3.2 experimental institutionThe research is conduct with two different types of UASB reactor theoretical account which are baffled and un-baffled to further analyze the influences of fluid blending form in the reactor. Figure 1 shows the conventional diagram with dimensions of 1m ten 0.2m.Degree centigrades UsersKok FaiDesktopUASB.pngFigure 2 Conventional plot of the UASB reactor theoretical account. in all units are in metre.Table 2 Chief characteristic of the UASB reactor theoretical accountParameter rangeDesign liquid flow rate ( l/h )Hydraulic keeping clip ( H )Entire Height ( m )Water deepness ( m )Sludge deepness ( m )Internal diameter ( m )Internal cross sectional country ( M2 )Organic burden ( kg COD/m3/d )Table 3 theme of waste H2OIncoming waste H2OValueEntire BOD ( mg/l )Entire COD ( mg/l )Chloride ( mg/l )Sulfate ( mg/l )One of the UASB reactors is baffled and the other one is un-baffled. Both of these reactors operated with the same hydraulic keeping clip, organic burden and piece of music of waste H2O which are the changeless variables in this experiment. The differences of the chemical waste substances remotion efficiency between both reactors would be the consequence of this survey.3.2 Sampling and AnalysisComposite examine of the reactors influent and wastewater were collected on a day-to-day footing and analyzed for COD, BOD, sulfate and others chemical waste substances. Sludge try out was carried out through side ports in the sludge zone of the reactor. The flow rate was control by the valve and continuously modulate by a pump.3.2.1 BOD trialBiochemical O demand ( BOD ) is the sum of turn O by aerophilic biological beings in a organic structure of H2O to breakdown organic stuff nowadays in a given H2O sample at certain(p) temperature. BOD besides can be used as gage of the effectivity of UASB reactor. The process of the BOD trialThe dilution H2O was brisk by 1ml each of orthophosphat e buffer, Mg sulphate, Ca chloride, ferrous chloride solution into 1L distilled H2O.1ml effluent sample was added into a 500ml beaker.Dilution H2O was added up to 300ml into same beaker.The pH survey was adjusted to 6.5 to 7.5 by added acid or base.300ml dilution H2O was prepared as control. tout ensemble prepared samples and control put in 300ml-incubation bottle.The DO for each sample was calculated by utilizing Dissolved Oxygen Meter.All the bottles put in BOD brooder for 5 yearss. The temperature was set at 20AC.The BOD5 was calculated harmonizing to the expression belowWhereD1 = DO value in initial sampleD2 = DO value in concluding sampleP = denary volumetric fraction of sample usedOr Dilution factor = Bottle volume ( 300ml ) / sample volume3.2.2 COD trialThe chemical Oxygen Demand ( COD ) trial measured the O equivalent consumed by organic affair in a sample during strong chemical oxidization. It can assist to foretell the O demands of the wastewater and is used for monito ring and control of discharges, and for accessing reactor public presentations. The trial methodThe effluent sample was oxidized by digesting in a certain reaction tubing with sulfuric acid and K bichromate in the presences of a Ag sulfate accelerator for 2 hours at a temperature of 150AC.The sum of bichromate reduced is relative to the COD.A reagent space was prepared for each batch of tubings in order to counterbalance for the oxygen demand of the reagent itself. everyplace the scope of the trial a serial publication of colourss from xanthous through green to blue are produced. The colour is declarative of the chemical O demand and its measured by utilizing photometer.